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Panel de carro, Arco de Tito

Panel de carro, Arco de Tito


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Un segundo Arco de Tito encontrado

El Arco de Tito, que se encuentra a la entrada del Foro Romano, atrae a grandes multitudes que quieren ver este conocido monumento que fue erigido en memoria del asedio romano de Jerusalén y la destrucción de Jerusalén y el Templo # 8217s en el 70 d.C.

El Arco de Tito. Foto: Leen Ritmeyer

La parte interesante es la escena representada en el intradós sur (lado curvo interior de un arco) que muestra a los soldados romanos llevándose el botín del Templo de Jerusalén, es decir, el Candelabro. (menorá), la Mesa de los Panes de la Proposición y dos trompetas.

El panel sur muestra los despojos extraídos del Templo de Jerusalén. Foto: Leen Ritmeyer

Hoy se informó en el periódico Telegraph que otro arco monumental dedicado a Tito fue encontrado en Roma en la entrada sureste del Circo Máximo.

Aunque estos restos se conocen desde hace algún tiempo, ahora se han excavado de manera más completa.

El Circo Máximo. El nivel del suelo original de estaba 6 metros (20 pies) más abajo. Foto: Leen Ritmeyer

Los restos de un arco de triunfo construido en honor al emperador Tito han sido desenterrados de debajo de Roma y el circo Máximo de carreras de carros.

El arco, que se construyó inmediatamente después de la muerte del emperador en 81 d.C., habría formado una entrada magnífica al Circo Máximo, donde los aurigas compitieron entre sí en carreras que se representaron en la épica de Hollywood de 1959, Ben Hur.

Vista del recinto del Circo desde el sureste. Los restos de una base de columna y partes de columnas estriadas que pertenecían al Arco de Tito habían sido visibles en primer plano antes de que se llevara a cabo la excavación. La torre del primer plano forma parte de una fortificación medieval. Foto: Wikipedia

Las bases de cuatro columnas gigantes se encontraron bajo tierra en un área propensa a inundaciones. Esta imagen muestra uno de ellos:

Los restos excavados del gran Arco construido para el emperador Tito en el Circo Máximo. Foto: Folleto Un dibujo CAD de cómo pudo haber sido el gran Arco de Circo Massimo.

El sitio de excavación ahora está cubierto hasta que se puedan recaudar fondos para reconstruir este monumental arco de mármol.


Panel de carro, Arco de Tito - Historia



Arco de Tito

Las cualidades espaciales de los relieves de Ara Pacis alcanzaron su desarrollo más completo en los dos grandes paneles narrativos del arco de triunfo erigidos en el 81 d.C. para conmemorar las victorias del emperador Tito. Uno de ellos (higo. 275) muestra parte de la procesión triunfal que celebra la conquista de Jerusalén. El botín que se muestra incluye el candelabro de siete brazos y otros objetos sagrados. El movimiento de una multitud de figuras en profundidad se transmite con sorprendente éxito, a pesar de la superficie mutilada. A la derecha, la procesión se aleja de nosotros y desaparece a través de un arco de triunfo colocado oblicuamente al plano de fondo, de modo que solo la mitad más cercana emerge realmente del fondo, un dispositivo radical pero efectivo.

El panel complementario (higo. 276) evita tales experimentos, aunque el número de capas de relieve es igualmente grande aquí. También sentimos que su diseño tiene una cualidad extrañamente estática, a pesar de que se trata simplemente de otra parte de la misma procesión. La diferencia debe deberse al tema, que muestra la
el mismo emperador en su carro, coronado por la Victoria alada detrás de él. Aparentemente, la primera preocupación del escultor fue mostrar esta imagen fija, en lugar de mantener la procesión en movimiento. Una vez que intentamos leer el carro imperial y las figuras circundantes en términos de espacio real, nos damos cuenta de cuán extrañamente contradictorias son las relaciones espaciales. Cuatro caballos, mostrados en estricta vista de perfil, se mueven en una dirección paralela al borde inferior del panel, pero el carro no está donde debería estar si realmente lo tiraran. Además, los cuerpos del emperador y de la mayoría de las demás figuras están representados de frente, en lugar de de perfil. Estas parecen ser convenciones fijas para representar al emperador triunfante que nuestro artista se sintió obligado a respetar, aunque estaban en conflicto con el deseo de crear el tipo de movimiento coherente en el espacio logrado tan bien en figura 275.


Arco de Tito.


Arco de Tito. Botín del templo de Jerusalén


275. Botín del Templo de Jerusalén.
Alivio en pasillo. Arco de Tito, Roma. 81 A. D. Mármol, altura 7'10 & quot (2,4
metro)


Arco de Tito. Triunfo de Tito


276. Triunfo de Tito.
Alivio en pasillo, Arco de Tito


Arco de Tito. Pintura de Canaletto.

Tenga en cuenta: el administrador del sitio no responde a ninguna pregunta. Esta es solo la discusión de nuestros lectores.


Triunfo romano y el arco de Tito

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, El triunfo de Tito: 71 d.C., Los Flavios, 1835 óleo sobre tabla, 44,3 x 29 cm (Museo de Arte Walters) “El artista muestra a Tito regresando triunfalmente a Roma tras su captura de Jerusalén ... Su padre, el emperador Vespasiano ... encabeza la procesión. Luego viene Titus, de la mano de su hija, Julia, que se vuelve para dirigirse al hermano menor y sucesor de su padre, Domiciano ... Alma-Tadema describió estos eventos basándose en fuentes clásicas ... y en las últimas investigaciones del siglo XIX sobre la vida cotidiana en Roma." (Museo de Arte Walters)

El triunfo romano fue una antigua tradición marcial, un desfile tan desenfrenado que su culminación simbólica implicó catapultar al general victorioso (triunfo) a un estado cuasi-divino por un solo día embriagador. Los romanos marcaron su estatus al teñir su rostro de rojo con el pigmento mineral cinabrio (se decía que el rostro de Júpiter tenía el mismo tono rojizo).

Los romanos rastrearon las tradiciones del triunfo hasta sus propios comienzos. El legendario fundador de Roma, Romulus, fue el primero en celebrar el rito cuando derrotó y mató a Acron, el rey de Caenina.

Victoria en Judea

En el verano de 71 E.C., el emperador romano Vespasiano y Tito, su hijo mayor, sofocaron una peligrosa revuelta en la provincia romana de Judea y regresaron a Roma para celebrar este gran logro. No solo eso, sino que la dinastía Flavia (Vespasiano y sus dos hijos Tito y Domiciano) había logrado ganar el trono durante el año 69 E.C., una época de sangrienta agitación civil conocida como el "Año de los Cuatro Emperadores".

Judea Capta Sesterti (moneda romana) con el retrato de Tito (izquierda) y una personificación de Judea, capturada (derecha) (foto: copyright © David Hendin, usada con permiso)

Mucho estaba en juego para Vespasiano y Tito, ambos relativamente recién llegados políticos de una línea familiar (Flavio) que no era particularmente ilustre. El honor del triunfo les fue otorgado conjuntamente, y el espectáculo (como lo describe Flavio Josefo en su texto conocido como La guerra judía) rivalizaba con todo lo que Roma había visto antes: botines, prisioneros, narraciones pictóricas en abundancia. Todo esto estaba destinado a asombrar a los espectadores y transportarlos a los campos de batalla de la guerra en el este. Pero el ritual del triunfo, su desfile, incluso el estatus semidivino que se le concedía al triunfo—Fue efímero. Por esta razón, la posterior construcción de monumentos permanentes (como el Arco de Tito) sirvió para generar un impacto en el paisaje urbano (y en la memoria colectiva de los habitantes de la ciudad) que duró mucho más que los acontecimientos del día en sí.

Arco de Tito y Coliseo, Roma (foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

La tradición de los monumentos triunfales conecta a los Flavios con las tradiciones de la República Romana. Los primeros monumentos incluían columnas, por ejemplo, la columna rostrada (columna rostrata) de Caius Duilius (c. 260 a. C.) - y el primer prototipo de arco triunfal conocido como el fórnix Fabianus erigido en el Forum Romanum por Q. Fabius Allobrogicus en 121 a. C. El emperador Augusto continuó utilizando el arco de triunfo, aunque reestructuró la institución del triunfo en sí. Dado que los flavios eran relativamente recién llegados a la estructura de poder romana, necesitaban toda la legitimación que pudieran encontrar y, por lo tanto, participar en las tradiciones consagradas del triunfo y sus monumentos históricos tenía mucho sentido.

Topografía y el triunfo

Vista del Foro Romano (Forum Romanum) hasta el Arco de Tito (foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

El Arco de Tito se encuentra en la Vía Summa Sacra, el punto más alto de la Vía Sacra, el "Camino Sagrado" de Roma que servía como su principal calle procesional. Además, el Arco de Tito domina un punto clave a lo largo de la ruta triunfal (vía Triumphalis): Uno que une visualmente el valle del anfiteatro Flavio (conocido por nosotros como el Coliseo) con el valle del Foro Romano y el Monte Capitolino más allá. Muchos desfiles triunfales habían pasado a lo largo de esta ruta durante muchos siglos, por lo que la elección de colocar un monumento triunfal permanente a horcajadas en la ruta no fue accidental, sino que evocó deliberadamente el hecho de que el triunfo como ritual creó y reforzó la memoria colectiva de los romanos. . Este arco, construido como un monumento honorífico, honró a Tito póstumamente y fue un proyecto ejecutado por su hermano menor y sucesor imperial, Domiciano (emperador, 81-96 E.C.). Otro arco dedicado a Tito, de naturaleza triunfal, estaba ubicado en el valle del Circo Máximo, pero este arco solo sobrevive en forma de fragmentos escultóricos dispersos y una transcripción medieval de su inscripción dedicatoria. Excavaciones arqueológicas recientes (2015) en el Circo Máximo han revelado restos previamente desconocidos de este arco “perdido”, incluidos elementos de sus cimientos.

La inscripción del ático

Inscripción en el ático, Arco de Tito, después de 81 E.C., Roma (foto: Dr. Steven Fine, usada con permiso)

La antigua inscripción del ático que se conserva (arriba) registra la dedicación del monumento a Tito. Dado que se identifica a Tito como divinizado (divus), nos enteramos de que la finalización del monumento solo pudo haber ocurrido después de la muerte de Titus en septiembre de 81 E.C.

El texto de la inscripción del ático dice:

SENATVS
POPVLVSQVE · ROMANVS
DIVO · TITO · DIVI · VESPASIANI · F (ILIO)
VESPASIANO · AVGVSTO (CIL 6.945)

El Senado y el pueblo romano (dedicar esto) al deificado Tito Vespasiano Augusto, hijo del deificado Vespasiano.

La inscripción hace que la dedicación sea pública, realizada por el Senado y el pueblo romano (Senatus Populusque Romanus), y recuerda a los espectadores el vínculo de Tito con su padre igualmente deificado, Vespasiano, que había muerto en el 79 d.C.Esta dedicación es un ejemplo de astuta política de poder por parte del emperador Domiciano: era demasiado joven para participar en la gloria militar disfrutada por su padre y su hermano. Quizás buscaba disfrutar de la opinión pública generalmente favorable de la que disfrutaban mientras él mismo hacía la transición al poder.

Escultura en relieve

Vista de la bóveda del pasillo del arco, con un relieve de la apoteosis de Titus (foto: Dr. Steven Fine, usada con permiso)

Dos relieves de paneles flanquean el pasillo único del arco y un tercero adorna la bóveda (el relieve de la bóveda está arriba). El tema de los relieves laterales se basa en el triunfo de Vespasiano y Tito en 71 E.C., y describe episodios triunfales clave que siguieron a la caída de Jerusalén. En una escena (abajo), los romanos llevan el botín del templo de Jerusalén, incluida una menorá, trompetas sagradas y la mesa de los panes de la proposición. Estudios recientes han demostrado que estos artículos estaban pintados de amarillo ocre.

Panel en relieve que muestra El botín de Jerusalén siendo llevado a Roma, Arco de Tito, Roma, después de 81 E.C., mármol, 7 pies, 10 pulgadas de alto (foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

El panel de triunfo de enfrente muestra a Tito en un carro triunfal de cuatro caballos (cuadriga) seguido de cerca por la diosa de la Victoria (Victoria), precedidos por asistentes oficiales conocidos como lictores, y acompañados de representaciones simbólicas (genios) del Senado, el pueblo romano y Virtus (virtud viril) (abajo).

Panel en relieve que muestra a Tito en un carro triunfal de cuatro caballos, Arco de Tito, Roma, después de 81 E.C., mármol, 7 pies, 10 pulgadas de alto (foto: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Dado que el desfile triunfal habría pasado por el mismo lugar en el que se construyó el arco, estas imágenes sirven como poderosas evocaciones de recuerdos colectivos compartidos y retenidos por el pueblo romano. La representación en los relieves se hace eco del desfile desenfrenado descrito por Flavius ​​Josephus. El programa de la arquitectura flavia transformó en gran medida el paisaje físico de Roma. Este programa estaba repleto de señales visuales y recordatorios del éxito flavio, todo lo cual derivó y se centró en el gran triunfo en la culminación de la Guerra Judía.

Restauración y estado actual

Canaletto, El Arco de Tito en Roma, 1742-44, óleo sobre lienzo, 38 x 28 cm (Galleria dell’Accademia Carrara, Bergamo)

Durante el siglo XI, el arco se incorporó a una fortaleza construida por la familia Frangipani en Roma, lo que provocó daños en los relieves de los paneles que aún hoy son visibles. En 1821, durante el pontificado del Papa Pío VII, Giuseppe Valadier llevó a cabo una importante restauración de la estructura sobreviviente. Para identificar las partes que se habían restaurado, Valadier empleó travertino en lugar del mármol original. El lado occidental del ático recibió una nueva inscripción en el momento de esta restauración. La famosa pintura del arco de Canaletto ofrece una vista del estado del monumento antes de la restauración de Valadier.

Influencia

Paul Philippe Cret, el arco conmemorativo nacional en Valley Forge Park en Pensilvania, erigido en 1917

El Arco de Tito ha sido durante mucho tiempo una fuente de inspiración artística. Leon Battista Alberti se inspiró en su forma cuando diseñó la fachada de la basílica de Sant'Andrea en Mantua, Italia, después de 1472. El Arco de Tito ha inspirado muchos arcos conmemorativos modernos, en particular el Arco del Triunfo en París (1806), El Arco de Stanford White en Washington Square Park en la ciudad de Nueva York (1892), el Arco Memorial Nacional de los Estados Unidos en el Parque Histórico Nacional Valley Forge diseñado por Paul Philippe Cret (1917), y la Puerta de la India de Edward Lutyens en Nueva Delhi (1921).

Recursos adicionales

María Barba, El triunfo romano (Cambridge, Mass .: Belknap, 2009).

A. J. Boyle y W. J. Dominik, Roma Flavia: cultura, imagen, texto (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003).

F. Coarelli, Divus Vespasianus. Il Bimillenario dei Flavi (Milán: Electa, 2009)

J. C. Edmondson, S. Mason y J. B. Rives, Flavio Josefo y Roma Flavia (Nueva York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

R. Ross Holloway, "Algunas observaciones sobre el arco de Tito", L'antiquité classique 56 (1987) págs. 183-191.

M. Pfanner, Der Titusbogen (Maguncia: P. von Zabern, 1983).

L. Roman, "Marcial y la ciudad de Roma". La revista de estudios romanos 100 (2010) págs. 1-30.

L. Yarden, El botín de Jerusalén en el Arco de Tito: una nueva investigación (Estocolmo: Svenska Institutet i Rom Göteborg: Distribuidor, P. Åströms, 1991).


Arco de Tito

El Arco de Tito (italiano: Arco di Tito Latín: Arcus Titi) es un arco honorífico del siglo I d.C., ubicado en la Via Sacra, Roma, justo al sureste del Foro Romano. Fue construido en c. 81 EC por el emperador Domiciano poco después de la muerte de su hermano mayor Tito para conmemorar la deificación oficial de Tito o consecratio y la victoria de Tito junto con su padre, Vespasiano, sobre la rebelión judía en Judea.

Contenido

Citar este artículo

APA
Arco de Tito (n.d.). Recuperado el 19 de junio de 2021 de https://madainproject.com/arch_of_titus

MLA8
Arco de Tito. Proyecto Madain, madainproject.com/arch_of_titus.

Chicago
"Arco de Tito". Madain Project, n.d. https://madainproject.com/arch_of_titus.

Nota: Siempre revise sus referencias y haga las correcciones necesarias antes de usar. Preste atención a los nombres, las mayúsculas y las fechas.

Visión general

El arco contiene paneles que representan la procesión triunfal celebrada en 71 EC después de la victoria romana que culminó con la caída de Jerusalén, y ofrece una de las pocas representaciones contemporáneas de artefactos del Templo de Herodes. Se convirtió en un símbolo de la diáspora judía, y la menorá representada en el arco sirvió como modelo para la menorá utilizada como emblema del estado de Israel.

Detalles arquitectónicos

Panel interior sur
El panel interior sur (inspeccionar) muestra el botín tomado del Templo en Jerusalén. El candelabro dorado o Menorah es el foco principal y está tallado en profundo relieve. Otros objetos sagrados que se llevan en la procesión triunfal son las Trompetas de Oro, los fogones para sacar las cenizas del altar y la Mesa de los Panes de la Proposición. Es probable que estos botines fueran originalmente de color dorado, con el fondo en azul.

Panel interior norte
El panel interior norte muestra a Tito triunfante o asistido por varios genios y lictores, que llevan fasces. Un amazónico con casco, Valor, lidera la cuadriga o carro de cuatro caballos, que lleva a Titus. La Victoria alada lo corona con una corona de laurel. La yuxtaposición es significativa porque es uno de los primeros ejemplos de divinidades y humanos presentes en una escena juntos. Esto contrasta con los paneles del Ara Pacis, donde los humanos y las divinidades están separados.

Inscripción occidental
La inscripción original se adjunta al lado oeste del Arco. Está escrito en mayúsculas cuadradas romanas y dice:
SENATVS
POPVLVSQVE · ROMANVS
DIVO · TITO · DIVI · VESPASIANI · F (ILIO)
VESPASIANO · AVGVSTO
Traducción: "El Senado y el pueblo romano (dedican esto) al deificado Tito Vespasiano Augusto, hijo del deificado Vespasiano".

Vía Sacra
Mientras que el tramo occidental de la Via Sacra (Calle Sagrada) que atraviesa el Foro sigue la antigua ruta original de la carretera, el tramo este entre el final del foro y el Coliseo, que pasa por debajo del Arco de Tito, es una redirección. del camino construido después del Gran Incendio de Roma en 64 EC.

Galería

Ver también

Referencias

  • "El Arco de Tito". exhibitions.kelsey.lsa.umich.edu. Consultado el 6 de julio de 2017.
  • Diana Rowell (23 de agosto de 2012). París: La 'Nueva Roma' de Napoleón I. Bloomsbury Publishing. págs. 43–. ISBN 978-1-4411-2883-6.
  • En inglés https://archive.org/stream/marvelsromeorap00nichgoog#page/n50/mode/2up en latín: "Arcus septem lucernarum Titi et Vespasiani, ubi est candelabrum Moysi cum arca habens septem brachia in piede turris cartulariae", Mirabilia Urbis Romae , página 4
  • Élisabeth Chevallier, Raymond Chevallier, Iter Italicum: les voyageurs français à la découverte de l'Italie ancienne, Les Belles Lettres, 1984, ISBN 9782251333106, páginas 274–291
  • Una guía de Let's Go City: Roma, pág. 76, Vedran Lekić, 2004 ISBN 1-4050-3329-0.
  • De la Croix, Horst Tansey, Richard G. Kirkpatrick, Diane (1991). El arte de Gardner a través de las edades (9ª ed.). Thomson / Wadsworth. pag. 232. ISBN 0-15-503769-2.
  • Los edificios de Europa: Roma, página 33, Christopher Woodward, 1995 ISBN 0-7190-4032-9.
  • Sotto l 'arco di Tito la festa degli ebrei, la Repubblica, 23 de diciembre de 1997. Consultado el 27 de julio de 2019.
  • Festa di Channoukà: Celebrazione dei 50 anni dello Stato d'Israele presso l'Arco di Tito alla presenza delle autorità e della Comunità israelitica romana. En el sitio web de Radio Radicale, 23 de diciembre de 1997. Consultado el 27 de julio de 2019.
  • Morton Satin, director de división de la Organización para la Agricultura y la Alimentación, publicó un artículo en The Forward, afirmando que había "provocado con éxito una deliberación considerable dentro de la comunidad judía de Roma" para poner fin público a la prohibición: Satin, Morton (2013- 12-01). "Campaña de un hombre contra el arco de Tito - y cómo cambió a los judíos de Italia". El Adelante. Consultado el 30 de julio de 2014. Según una antigua prohibición impuesta al monumento por las autoridades judías de Roma, una vez que una persona judía pasa por debajo del arco, ya no puede ser considerada judía. el rabino jefe de Roma había dicho a la Embajada de Israel que la prohibición original ya no era válida, ya que se había establecido un Estado de Israel independiente. Desafortunadamente, nadie que supiera de la prohibición había sido informado de su derogación.
  • Steven D. Fraade, El templo como indicador de la identidad judía antes y después del 70 EC: El papel de los vasos sagrados en la memoria y la imaginación rabínicas, pág. 246. "El Arco de Tito nunca se menciona en fuentes rabínicas. Hay varias referencias a visiones rabínicas del siglo II de objetos capturados en el Templo en Roma".
  • Artus, Paul (2006). Arte y Arquitectura del Imperio Romano. Libros Bellona. págs. 45–48. ISBN 978-0-9582693-1-5.
  • Dr. Jeffrey Becker. "El Arco de Tito". Sitio web de Khan Academy. Consultado el 27 de julio de 2019.
  • "Arco de Tito". Smarthistory en Khan Academy. Consultado el 19 de diciembre de 2012.
  • Mishory, Alec. "Símbolos nacionales de Israel: el emblema del estado". Biblioteca virtual judía. Consultado el 30 de julio de 2014.

Ovaciones

Un nivel por debajo de un triunfo fue una ovación. Esto fue otorgado por victorias sobre oponentes fáciles (menos de 5,000 bajas) o aquellos considerados carentes de honor, como piratas o revueltas de esclavos. La concesión de una mera ovación a Marco Licinio Craso después de sofocar la revuelta de Espartaco es un ejemplo. Una ovación también se consideró más apropiada para las batallas indecisas. Algunas de las diferencias clave, además de tener menos prestigio y pompa, eran que el comandante no montaba un carro sino que viajaba a caballo o incluso a pie, los soldados a menudo no participaban y se sacrificaba una oveja al final de la procesión. no un toro. La vestimenta del comandante tampoco era particularmente especial, ya que vestía la túnica de un magistrado y una corona de mirto, no de laurel. A veces, los comandantes, después de que se les negara el dinero público y el derecho a celebrar una ovación o un triunfo propiamente dicho por parte del Senado, montaban su propia versión a menor escala en el monte Alban. También hubo una o dos personas que intentaron organizar un triunfo fuera de Roma: Albucio en 104 a. C. tuvo una en Cerdeña y Mark Antony en 34 a. C. en Alejandría, pero la élite gobernante en Roma consideró que eran de muy mal gusto.


Panel de carro, Arco de Tito - Historia

El Arco de Tito conmemoró la procesión triunfal del ejército romano después de la destrucción del Templo de Jerusalén y también recordó la apoteosis (deificación) de Tito, pero ¿qué pasa con los olivos?

Los olivos (derecha) forman parte de la Via Sacra que conduce al Arco de Tito. El olivo demuestra que Dios todavía ama al Israel étnico, y un día 'todo Israel será salvo'.

Introducción

Durante las dos últimas décadas del siglo I d.C., Roma estuvo bajo las garras del emperador Domiciano, que se autodeificaba. Imagínese a un pequeño grupo de creyentes en el Señor Jesús pasando por delante del Coliseo en Roma y girando hacia el oeste hacia el Foro Romano y la Colina Capitolina. Observan, en el punto más alto de la Via Sacra (Camino Sagrado), el Arco de Tito recién erigido. Quizás a algunos de este grupo les sorprenderán los olivares a ambos lados de la carretera y captarán la ironía de esta vista. El Arco de Tito conmemoró la procesión triunfal del ejército romano después de la destrucción del Templo de Jerusalén y también conmemoraba el apoteosis (deificación) de Tito, pero ¿qué hay de los olivos?

los Apoteosis del emperador Tito. Un águila lleva al emperador Tito muerto al cielo después de que fue deificado por el Senado Romano.

Imagínese de nuevo que uno de los individuos de este grupo hubiera sobrevivido a la destrucción de la Ciudad Santa de Jerusalén por el ejército romano, fue llevado a Roma como prisionero y había sido exhibido como cautivo en la procesión triunfal del emperador Vespasiano y su hijo. Titus. Más tarde fue vendido como esclavo en la Ciudad Eterna, Roma. Quizás el hogar en el que fue vendido este individuo también tenía esclavos cristianos. Finalmente, uno de los cristianos compartió con esta persona judía el evangelio (buenas nuevas) de Jesucristo. El mensaje era simple: Dios amó al mundo y envió a Su Hijo, el Cordero de Dios sin mancha, el Señor Jesús sin pecado, a morir y pagar por los pecados de toda la humanidad. Ofrece el regalo gratuito de la vida eterna, el perdón de los pecados, la justicia de Dios y un hogar en el cielo a todos los que pongan su confianza en el Señor Jesús como su Salvador. Hacer buenas obras y obedecer los mandamientos no era suficiente para merecer la justicia de Dios. Solo la fe, solo en el Señor Jesucristo, ganaría el favor de Dios (Jn 3:16 Rom 4: 5 Fil 3: 9 Ef 2: 8-9 1 P 1:18, 19 1 Jn 2: 2). Este esclavo judío fue conmovido por este mensaje y confió en el Señor Jesús como Mesías y Salvador.

Mientras este grupo de creyentes camina por la Vía Sacra, el nuevo converso reflexiona sobre algunos versículos que se leyeron esa mañana en una reunión de los hermanos y hermanas en el Mesías Jesús. Los versículos decían: '¿Quién nos separará del amor de Cristo? ¿Habrá tribulación, angustia, persecución, hambre, desnudez, peligro o espada? Como está escrito: "Por tu causa nos matan todo el día, somos contados como ovejas para el matadero". Sin embargo, en todas estas cosas somos más que vencedores por medio de Aquel que nos amó. Porque estoy persuadido de que ni la muerte ni la vida, ni los ángeles ni los principados, ni los poderes, ni lo presente ni lo por venir, ni lo alto ni lo profundo, ni ninguna otra cosa creada, podrá separarnos del amor de Dios que es en Cristo Jesús Señor nuestro '(Romanos 8: 35-39, NKJV).

El converso judío estaba gozoso por el hecho de que absolutamente nada podía separar a un creyente en el Señor Jesús del amor de Dios. Pero había varias preguntas candentes en su mente, quien de adolescente había experimentado tribulación, angustia, persecución, hambre, desnudez, peligro y espada a manos de los romanos en Jerusalén varias décadas antes. Cuando vio por primera vez el panel en el Arco de Tito que representa los implementos del Templo siendo llevados en la procesión triunfal, preguntó al grupo: '¿Dios todavía ama al Israel étnico? Dijo que sí (Dt 7: 8 Jer 31: 3). ¿Ha terminado con ella, o todavía hay un futuro para la nación de Israel? ' El líder bajó de la Via Sacra y se acercó a una rama en los olivares y dijo: 'La respuesta a tu pregunta, querido hermano, se encuentra en este olivo. ¡Sí, nuestro Dios amoroso todavía tiene un futuro para la nación de Israel! '

El Arco de Tito

El emperador Domiciano erigió este arco de fórnix único con elegantes proporciones en memoria de su hermano fallecido, Tito, después de que fuera divinizado por el Senado romano en el año 81 d.C. Encima del arco hay una inscripción que dice: 'El Senado y el pueblo romano a la Tito deificado Vespasiano Augusto, hijo del Vespasiano deificado »(Holloway 1987: 184). Este arco tiene 50,5 pies (15,4 m) de alto, 44,3 pies (13,5 m) de ancho y 15,5 pies (4,75 m) de profundidad, y está revestido con mármol Pentelic (Richardson 1992: 30).

Hay tres relieves que habrían llamado la atención de cualquiera que pasara por debajo del arco. Cuando uno mira hacia la corona del arco, hay un relieve que muestra un águila que lleva al emperador deificado Tito al cielo. Esto representó su apoteosis. También hay dos relieves de pasillos a destacar. En el lado sur hay un relieve del ejército romano llevándose el botín del templo de Herodes en Jerusalén en el año 70 d.C. Este relieve incluye una menorá (candelero), la mesa de los panes de la proposición con dos vasijas y las dos piezas de plata. trompetas. También hay soldados con carteles con los nombres de las ciudades conquistadas o fotografías de varias escenas de batalla. En el lado norte del pasadizo hay un relieve con Tito montado en un carro conducido por Roma. Nike, la diosa de la victoria, lo corona con una corona, mostrando su victoria sobre la nación judía.

Josefo, el historiador judío del primer siglo y miembro adoptado de la familia Flavia, dio un relato detallado de esta procesión triunfal en su libro, Guerras judías, escrito alrededor del año 75 d.C. (7: 123-57 LCL 3: 541-51). Después del triunfo, algunos de los objetos se colocaron en el Templo de la Paz (Templum Pax) construido por Vespasiano cerca del Foro Romano, y otros objetos se colocaron en su palacio en el Monte Palatino (Guerras 7: 158-62 LCL 3: 551 -53 Richardson 1992: 286-87).

Había otro arco en el Circo Máximo, construido unos años antes, que estaba dedicado a la victoria del emperador Tito sobre el pueblo judío, pero no se conoce arqueológicamente en la actualidad. Sin embargo, se conoce por las monedas, los relieves y los mosaicos (Richardson 1992: 30). Una de las inscripciones de este arco dice:

El Senado y el Pueblo Romano al Emperador Tito César Vespasiano Augusto hijo del divinizado Vespasiano Pontífice Máximo, poseedor del poder tribunicio por décima vez, imperador por decimoséptima vez, cónsul por octava vez, padre de la patria, el muy princeps de Roma porque con el ejemplo y el consejo de su padre venció a los judíos y destruyó la ciudad de Jerusalén, que incluso antes fue asediada por generales, reyes y pueblos en vano o dejada sin ser molestada por ellos (Holloway 1987: 191).

La inscripción dedicatoria sobre el Arco de Tito, que dice: "El Senado y el pueblo romano al deificado Tito Vespasiano Augusto, hijo del deificado Vespasiano".

Titus montando un carro en la procesión triunfal que conmemoró la destrucción de Jerusalén. Se muestra a Nike, la diosa de la victoria, coronándolo con la corona de un vencedor.

El olivo en Romanos 11

El apóstol Pablo escribió una epístola a la iglesia en Roma alrededor del año 58 d.C. Al final del capítulo 8 de esta epístola, él hace la pregunta, '¿Qué puede separarnos del amor de Dios?' (8:35). Responde a su propia pregunta diciendo: ¡absolutamente nada! (8: 35-39). Un creyente judío en el Señor Jesús, al leer esta declaración después de la caída de Jerusalén en el año 70 d.C., podría hacer la pregunta: '¿Qué pasa con el Israel étnico? ¿Ha terminado Dios con ella? Pablo responde a estas preguntas en los siguientes tres capítulos de este libro (Romanos 9-11). En el capítulo 9 analiza la historia pasada de Israel y su elección por gracia. En el capítulo 10 describe al Israel actual y cómo ella busca la justicia de Dios por las obras, y no solo por la fe en Cristo. Finalmente, en el capítulo 11, revela el futuro del Israel étnico. Un día, todo Israel será salvo (11:26).

Nuestro grupo imaginario se reúne alrededor de un olivo cerca del Arco de Tito. El líder señala una rama de olivo silvestre que había sido injertada en el olivo y dice: 'El apóstol Pablo escribió una carta a nuestra iglesia y describió la raíz de un olivo como las bendiciones para todas las familias de la tierra prometidas en el Pacto Abrahámico (Romanos 11: 16-18 cf. Gn 12: 3, Gálatas 3: 6-9). Algunas de las ramas del olivo, la etnia de Israel, se habían desgajado debido a su incredulidad, pero se injertaron ramas de olivo silvestre, gentiles (11: 17-22). La salvación de los gentiles debía provocar a los celos de la etnia israelí (11: 11-14). Si una persona judía regresara al Señor Jesús y confiara en Él como Mesías y Salvador, sería injertada nuevamente en el árbol (11: 23-25). Pero vendrá un día en que 'todo Israel será salvo' cuando miran a Aquel a quien traspasaron (11:26 cf. Zac 12:10, Ap 1: 7).

(Para una discusión sobre injertos por uno que era contemporáneo del apóstol Pablo, vea Columela, De Re Rustica 5.11 LCL 2: 101-113. Para una discusión sobre la arboricultura de Romanos 11: 17-24, ver Baxter y Ziesler 1985: 25-32 Ramsay 1905: 16-34, 152-60 Bruce 1988: 203-210.)

Hay al menos dos verdades teológicas que podría extraer un creyente en el Señor Jesús en el siglo I d.C. que visitó el Arco de Tito. Primero, que el emperador Tito había sido declarado hijo de un dios por un voto del Senado romano, y su apoteosis was validated by large inscriptions over monumental structures, by coins, and by a relief showing him ascending to heaven on the back of an eagle. In sharp contrast, the Lord Jesus was declared to be the Son of God by His bodily resurrection from the dead (Rom 1:3-4), and this declaration was validated by the many eyewitnesses who saw Him after His resurrection (1 Cor 15:1-9). The resurrected and living Lord Jesus is infinitely superior to the dead and cremated Emperor Titus (Aitken 2001: 73-88 2005: 82-85).

Roman soldiers carrying the booty from the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 in a triumphal procession. The soldiers carry panels with of showbread, as they approach an earlier triumphal arch on the relief.

Second, the two scenes from the passageway of the Arch of Titus indicated that the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed, and some might conclude that God had rejected ethnic Israel. However, the Apostle Paul illustrated from the olive tree in Romans 11 that Israel's rejection was not complete but only partial, and that there remains a remnant of Israel according to the election of grace (11:5). Their rejection was not final but only temporary, because one day in the future 'all Israel shall be saved' (11:26).

Paintings depicting the battles of the Jewish revolt and the menorah from the Temple, as well as the two silver trumpets and the table.

Bibliografía

2001 Portraying the Temple in Stone and Text: The Arch of Titus and the Epistle to the Hebrews. Páginas. 73-88 in Religious Texts and Material Context. Eds. J. Neusner and J. Strange. Lanham MD: University Press of America.

2005 Reading Hebrews in Flavian Rome. Union Seminary Quarterly Review 59: 82-85.

1985 Paul and Arboriculture: Romans 11:17-24. Journal for the Study of the New Testament 24: 25-32.

1988 The Letter of Paul to the Romans. Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans.

Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus

1968 De Res Rustica (On Agriculture), Books 5-9. Vol. 2. Trans. E.S. Forster and E.H. Heffner. Cambridge MA: Harvard University. Loeb Classical Library 407.

1987 Some Remarks on the Arch of Titus. L'Antiquite Classique 56: 183-91.

1979 Jewish Wars, Books 4-7. Vol. 3. Trans. H. Thackeray. Cambridge MA: Harvard University. Loeb Classical Library 210.

1905 The Olive-Tree and the Wild-Olive. Expositor, 6th series, 11:16-34, 152-60. Reprinted in Pauline and Other Studies in Early Christian History. New York: A.C. Armstrong and Son, 1906: 219-50.

1992 A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Baltimore MD: John Hopkins University.


When was the Arch of Titus constructed?

Located in the archaeological area of the Roman Forum, the Arch of Titus is a large white marble arch, standing fifteen meters tall and 6 meters wide. It is one of the two oldest remaining arches in the forum. The identity of the architect is unknown as there are no surviving documents from the construction’s time.

The History of the Arch

The arch was built following the death of Roman Emperor Titus in 81D. Titus was emperor for only two short years but was a very much-loved ruler. The construction began in 82 AD by Titus’ younger brother Domintian, who became his successor, to honour his brother along the main street of ancient Rome. They held a festival in 85 AD after completion to commemorate the dedication. It remained intact over time, even after the fall of Rome in the fifth century, however, closer to modern times the building did deteriorate. This resulted in a restoration of the arch between 1817 to 1821, with major repair of the outer areas and its exterior columns.

The Architecture of the Arch

The arch’s decoration has not completely survived the ravages of time, however, there are still a few noteworthy carvings. The inscription at the centre of the arch and is in situ. It translates as ‘The Senate and People of Rome, to Divus (meaning divine) Titus, son of Divus Vespasian, Vespasian Augustus.’ Side panels illustrate the war of Jerusalem. The first panel illustrates Titus’ triumph march over Jerusalem in 71 AD. The other panel shows Titus riding a horse-drawn chariot, being crowned by a manifestation of Victory. The arch depicts Titus as a god-like person, as seen in another illustration, Titus riding an eagle ascending to the sky.

How you can see the Arch

To see this incredible landmark and to discover the history and culture of Ancient Rome, you must visit the Roman Forum. It was once the social, political and commercial hub of the Roman Empire, with the Arch of Titus sitting along the main strip. We suggest taking a tour around the forum, so you can hear about the rich history of each artefact remaining. Marvel at this archaeological haven, with other significant sites including the Curia, funeral altar of Julius Caesa, and the House and Temple of Vestals.


Roman Art and Archaeology

The objective of this course is to provide an overview of the culture of ancient Rome beginning about 1000 BCE and ending with the so-called "Fall of Rome". We will look at some of the key people who played a role in Rome, from the time of the kings through the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. We will also focus on the city of Rome itself, as well as Rome's expansion through Italy, the Mediterranean, and beyond.

Рецензии

To me, it is the best structured course so far. Quiz after every lesson and written assignment after every week. Also, prof. Soren is reproducing it steadily and in comprehending fashion.

I really enjoyed every second of it! It was very comprehensive yet easy to understand and enjoyable. If you have the tiniest passion for classics, I definitely recommend this course!

Augustus - formerly known as Octavian - set the tone for the next major phase of Rome: the Roman empire. His family-related successors, the Julio-Claudians, would continue his rule. Yet none of his successors had the charisma or vision of Augustus himself, and some such as Caligula and Nero have become synonymous with profligacy and decadence of an extreme nature. By the year 69 CE. Rome was in chaos. But the emperor Vespasian restored order and dignity - not to mention humility - to the office, and instituted his own dynasty, the Flavians. Unfortunately, Vespasian's second son, Domitian, brought his Flavian dynasty to an end through dreadful administration. Domitian was murdered in 96 CE.

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David Soren

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In order to shower glory on his predecessors and bask in it himself, Domitian completed the Colosseum and had erected near it a triumphal arch, or what in Latin we call an arcus, A-R-C-U-S, which has come down through history as the Arch of Titus, even though Domitian actually put it up. It also celebrated the sacking of Jerusalem in the Jewish wars, which was capped by the destruction of the Jewish temple and the carrying off as booty of the silver trumpets that had called the faithful to celebrate Rosh Hashanah, the table for the displaying of the shoe bread, the unleavened 12 loaves of bread that were placed at the alter of Jehovah on the Sabbath, the Hebrew priests, and other temple treasures. The arcus was thus a huge propaganda billboard announcing the accomplishments and explaining the lineage of the ruling emperor and the dynasty. The Arch of Titus originally had three openings, but the monument had been built into a medieval fortification. It was finally restored in the early 19th century by, of all people, Napoleon's classically disposed architect Giuseppe Valadier so that only the central portion of the arcus may be trusted as authentic. On the inside, those passing beneath along the sacred way, to and from the Roman Forum, would see two major panels containing relief sculptures. On one, the sacking of the temple in Jerusalem was prominently displayed as part of an imperial triumph, marching its way through a triumphal arched gateway. Some of the marchers carried placards on a stick, the so called tabulae on satae or winged tabulae, winged images, which announced the victory and described the troops involved and the booty that was taken out of the temple. On the other panel appeared the emperor in a chariot holding the sceptre of Jupiter and a palm branch and wearing a laurel, a neck ornament or bulla, which was used to ward off evil spirits. Unlike the Ara Pacis Augustae which we've look at before and which kept the emperor separated from the divine figures or personifications, this panel shows Titus in the company of the personification of the Senate as an older toga-clad man. And also he's In the company of the genius of the people of Rome, who's shown as a muscular, long-haired youth. The Lictors also appear, carrying the beechwood rods symbolizing the power of the emperor. The rods almost form a radiant crown over the heads of the horses that are pulling the imperial chariot. Well, the burning of the Jewish temple, the establishment of a poll tax in Jerusalem, the abolition of the council of Jewish leaders, the scattering, or what is known as the diaspora of the Jews, and the institution of the formal worship of Jupiter on the temple mount in Jerusalem were considered major accomplishments of the Flavian regime, described by the historian, Flavius Josephus. Around the outside of the arch, in carving of lesser quality, the parade of spoils out of Jerusalem is particularly celebrated. Well this is a monument to help justify a weak Emperor and a monument that celebrates Roman imperialism at its most blatant. The Flavian style shows a fall off from the artistic plasticism of the Augustan age. Whereas Augustus relied on flat, carefully rendered, highly plastic and supple carving, the Flavian sculptors often relied on deep pockets of light and shade to create an immediate sense of flashing highlights. There was less carefulness in the execution. The figures lack classical proportion. And the sculpture, the figures, the heads of the people tend to be stacked up one above another, rather to be on the same level, and appearing to recede into the background as they did on the Ara Pacis. These figures are tiered up. They're stiffer. They're stumpier. They lack the catenaries or chains of drapery. So it's a kind of stiffer style, a more cursory style. Visitors to the arch often forget, also, to look up once they are inside the archway, where one would see the Emperor Titus undergoing an apotheosis and being borne up into the realm of the gods. Domitian built an enormous palace for himself, the Flavian Palace, which consisted of an enormous public space complete with a huge reception hall. So the Arch of Titus wasn't enough for him. He had to have a big, big palace, as well. And in it there was a massive, really enormous, public space That he used for his reception hall. And he had a massive dining room surrounded by fountains with gurgling jets of water spewing forth. This was a big palace, a palace for the public, and a palace that he could also live in because next to this massive complex for public reception and public dining was his personal home, overlooking directly the Circus Maximus so that he, a great sports enthusiast could watch the chariot races without having to leave his home at all.


Contenido

Los vir triumphalis Editar

In Republican Rome, truly exceptional military achievement merited the highest possible honours, which connected the vir triumphalis ("man of triumph", later known as a triumphator) to Rome's mythical and semi-mythical past. In effect, the general was close to being "king for a day", and possibly close to divinity. He wore the regalia traditionally associated both with the ancient Roman monarchy and with the statue of Jupiter Capitolinus: the purple and gold "toga picta", laurel crown, red boots and, again possibly, the red-painted face of Rome's supreme deity. He was drawn in procession through the city in a four-horse chariot, under the gaze of his peers and an applauding crowd, to the temple of Capitoline Jupiter. The spoils and captives of his victory led the way his armies followed behind. Once at the Capitoline temple, he sacrificed two white oxen to Jupiter and laid tokens of his victory at Jupiter's feet, dedicating his victory to the Roman Senate, people, and gods. [1]

Triumphs were tied to no particular day, season, or religious festival of the Roman calendar. Most seem to have been celebrated at the earliest practicable opportunity, probably on days that were deemed auspicious for the occasion. Tradition required that, for the duration of a triumph, every temple was open. The ceremony was thus, in some sense, shared by the whole community of Roman gods, [2] but overlaps were inevitable with specific festivals and anniversaries. Some may have been coincidental others were designed. For example, March 1, the festival and dies natalis of the war god Mars, was the traditional anniversary of the first triumph by Publicola (504 BCE), of six other Republican triumphs, and of the very first Roman triumph by Romulus. [3] Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis (birthday). [4] [5]

Religious dimensions aside, the focus of the triumph was the general himself. The ceremony promoted him – however temporarily – above every mortal Roman. This was an opportunity granted to very few. From the time of Scipio Africanus, the triumphal general was linked (at least for historians during the Principate) to Alexander and the demi-god Hercules, who had laboured selflessly for the benefit of all mankind. [6] [7] [8] His sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy (invidia) and malice of onlookers. [9] [10] In some accounts, a companion or public slave would remind him from time to time of his own mortality (a memento mori). [11]

The procession Edit

Rome's earliest "triumphs" were probably simple victory parades, celebrating the return of a victorious general and his army to the city, along with the fruits of his victory, and ending with some form of dedication to the gods. This is probably so for the earliest legendary and later semi-legendary triumphs of Rome's regal era, when the king functioned as Rome's highest magistrate and war-leader. As Rome's population, power, influence, and territory increased, so did the scale, length, variety, and extravagance of its triumphal processions.

The procession (pompa) mustered in the open space of the Campus Martius (Field of Mars) probably well before first light. From there, all unforeseen delays and accidents aside, it would have managed a slow walking pace at best, punctuated by various planned stops en route to its final destination of the Capitoline temple, a distance of just under 4 km (2.48 mi). Triumphal processions were notoriously long and slow [12] the longest could last for two or three days, and possibly more, and some may have been of greater length than the route itself. [13]

Some ancient and modern sources suggest a fairly standard processional order. First came the captive leaders, allies, and soldiers (and sometimes their families) usually walking in chains some were destined for execution or further display. Their captured weapons, armour, gold, silver, statuary, and curious or exotic treasures were carted behind them, along with paintings, tableaux, and models depicting significant places and episodes of the war. Next in line, all on foot, came Rome's senators and magistrates, followed by the general's lictors in their red war-robes, their fasces wreathed in laurel, then the general in his four-horse chariot. A companion, or a public slave, might share the chariot with him or, in some cases, his youngest children. His officers and elder sons rode horseback nearby. His unarmed soldiers followed in togas and laurel crowns, chanting "io triumphe!" and singing ribald songs at their general's expense. Somewhere in the procession, two flawless white oxen were led for the sacrifice to Jupiter, garland-decked and with gilded horns. All this was done to the accompaniment of music, clouds of incense, and the strewing of flowers. [14]

Almost nothing is known of the procession's infrastructure and management. Its doubtless enormous cost was defrayed in part by the state but mostly by the general's loot, which most ancient sources dwell on in great detail and unlikely superlatives. Once disposed, this portable wealth injected huge sums into the Roman economy the amount brought in by Octavian's triumph over Egypt triggered a fall in interest rates and a sharp rise in land prices. [15] No ancient source addresses the logistics of the procession: where the soldiers and captives, in a procession of several days, could have slept and eaten, or where these several thousands plus the spectators could have been stationed for the final ceremony at the Capitoline temple. [dieciséis]

The route Edit

The following schematic is for the route taken by "some, or many" triumphs, and is based on standard modern reconstructions. [17] Any original or traditional route would have been diverted to some extent by the city's many redevelopments and re-building, or sometimes by choice. The starting place (the Campus Martius) lay outside the city's sacred boundary (pomerio), bordering the eastern bank of the Tiber. The procession entered the city through a Porta Triumphalis (Triumphal Gate), [18] and crossed the pomerio, where the general surrendered his command to the senate and magistrates. It continued through the site of the Circus Flaminius, skirting the southern base of the Capitoline Hill and the Velabrum, along a Via Triumphalis (Triumphal Way) [19] towards the Circus Maximus, perhaps dropping off any prisoners destined for execution at the Tullianum. [20] It entered the Via Sacra then the Forum. Finally, it ascended the Capitoline Hill to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Once the sacrifice and dedications were completed, the procession and spectators dispersed to banquets, games, and other entertainments sponsored by the triumphing general.

Banquets, games, and entertainments Edit

In most triumphs, the general funded any post-procession banquets from his share of the loot. There were feasts for the people and separate, much richer feasts for the elite some went on for most of the night. Dionysus offers a contrast to the lavish triumphal banquets of his time by giving Romulus's triumph the most primitive possible "banquet" – ordinary Romans setting up food-tables as a "welcome home", and the returning troops taking swigs and bites as they marched by. He recreates the first Republican triumphal banquet along the same lines. [21] Varro claims that his aunt earned 20,000 sesterces by supplying 5,000 thrushes for Caecilius Metellus's triumph of 71 BCE. [22]

Some triumphs included ludi as fulfillment of the general's vow to a god or goddess, made before battle or during its heat, in return for their help in securing victory. [23] In the Republic, they were paid for by the triumphing general. Marcus Fulvius Nobilior vowed ludi in return for victory over the Aetolian League and paid for ten days of games at his triumph.

Conmemoración Editar

Most Romans would never have seen a triumph, but its symbolism permeated Roman imagination and material culture. Triumphal generals minted and circulated high value coins to propagate their triumphal fame and generosity empire-wide. Pompey's issues for his three triumphs are typical. One is an aureus (a gold coin) that has a laurel-wreathed border enclosing a head which personifies Africa beside it, Pompey's title "Magnus" ("The Great"), with wand and jug as symbols of his augury. The reverse identifies him as proconsul in a triumphal chariot attended by Victory. A triumphal denarius (a silver coin) shows his three trophies of captured arms, with his augur's wand and jug. Another shows a globe surrounded by triumphal wreaths, symbolising his "world conquest", and an ear of grain to show that his victory protected Rome's grain supply. [24]

In Republican tradition, a general was expected to wear his triumphal regalia only for the day of his triumph thereafter, they were presumably displayed in the atrium of his family home. As one of the nobility, he was entitled to a particular kind of funeral in which a string of actors walked behind his bier wearing the masks of his ancestors another actor represented the general himself and his highest achievement in life by wearing his funeral mask, triumphal laurels, and toga picta. [25] Anything more was deeply suspect Pompey was granted the privilege of wearing his triumphal wreath at the Circus, but he met with a hostile reception. [26] Julius Caesar's penchant for wearing his triumphal regalia "wherever and whenever" was taken as one among many signs of monarchical intentions which, for some, justified his murder. In the Imperial era, emperors wore such regalia to signify their elevated rank and office and to identify themselves with the Roman gods and Imperial order – a central feature of Imperial cult.

The building and dedication of monumental public works offered local, permanent opportunities for triumphal commemoration. In 55 BCE, Pompey inaugurated Rome's first stone-built Theatre as a gift to the people of Rome, funded by his spoils. Its gallery and colonnades doubled as an exhibition space and likely contained statues, paintings, and other trophies carried at his various triumphs. [27] It contained a new temple to Pompey's patron goddess Venus Victrix ("Victorious Venus") the year before, he had issued a coin which showed her crowned with triumphal laurels. [28] Julius Caesar claimed Venus as both patron and divine ancestress he funded a new temple to her and dedicated it during his quadruple triumph of 46 BCE. He thus wove his patron goddess and putative ancestress into his triumphal anniversary.

Augustus, Caesar's heir and Rome's first emperor, built a vast triumphal monument on the Greek coast at Actium, overlooking the scene of his decisive sea-battle against Antony and Egypt the bronze beaks of captured Egyptian warships projected from its seaward wall. Imperial iconography increasingly identified Emperors with the gods, starting with the Augustan reinvention of Rome as a virtual monarchy (the principate). Sculpted panels on the arch of Titus (built by Domitian) celebrate Titus' and Vespasian's joint triumph over the Jews after the siege of Jerusalem, with a triumphal procession of captives and treasures seized from the temple of Jerusalem – some of which funded the building of the Colosseum. Another panel shows the funeral and apotheosis of the deified Titus. Prior to this, the senate voted Titus a triple-arch at the Circus Maximus to celebrate or commemorate the same victory or triumph. [29]

In Republican tradition, only the Senate could grant a triumph. A general who wanted a triumph would dispatch his request and report to the Senate. Officially, triumphs were granted for outstanding military merit the state paid for the ceremony if this and certain other conditions were met – and these seem to have varied from time to time, and from case to case — or the Senate would pay for the official procession, at least. Most Roman historians rest the outcome on an open Senatorial debate and vote, its legality confirmed by one of the people's assemblies the senate and people thus controlled the state's coffers and rewarded or curbed its generals. Some triumphs seem to have been granted outright, with minimal debate. Some were turned down but went ahead anyway, with the general's direct appeal to the people over the senate and a promise of public games at his own expense. Others were blocked or granted only after interminable wrangling. Senators and generals alike were politicians, and Roman politics was notorious for its rivalries, shifting alliances, back-room dealings, and overt public bribery. [30] The senate's discussions would likely have hinged on triumphal tradition, precedent, and propriety less overtly but more anxiously, it would hinge on the extent of the general's political and military powers and popularity, and the possible consequences of supporting or hindering his further career. There is no firm evidence that the Senate applied a prescribed set of "triumphal laws" when making their decisions, [31] [32] although Valerius Maximus does claim that a triumph could only be granted to a victorious general who had slain at least 5,000 of the enemy in a single battle. [33]

During the Principate, triumphs became more politicized as manifestations of imperial authority and legitimacy.

Ovation Edit

A general might be granted a "lesser triumph", known as an Ovation. He entered the city on foot, minus his troops, in his magistrate's toga and wearing a wreath of Venus's myrtle. In 211 BCE, the Senate turned down Marcus Marcellus's request for a triumph after his victory over the Carthaginians and their Sicilian-Greek allies, apparently because his army was still in Sicily and unable to join him. They offered him instead a thanksgiving (supplicatio) and ovation. The day before it, he celebrated an unofficial triumph on the Alban Mount. His ovation was of triumphal proportions. It included a large painting, showing his siege of Syracuse, the siege engines themselves, captured plate, gold, silver, and royal ornaments, and the statuary and opulent furniture for which Syracuse was famous. Eight elephants were led in the procession, symbols of his victory over the Carthaginians. His Spanish and Syracusan allies led the way wearing golden wreaths they were granted Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily. [34]

In 71 BCE, Crassus earned an ovation for quashing the Spartacus revolt, and increased his honours by wearing a crown of Jupiter's "triumphal" laurel. [35] Ovations are listed along with triumphs on the Fasti Triumphales.

los Fasti Triumphales (también llamado Acta Triumphalia) are stone tablets that were erected in the Forum Romanum around 12 BCE, during the reign of Emperor Augustus. They give the general's formal name, the names of his father and grandfather, the people(s) or command province whence the triumph was awarded, and the date of the triumphal procession. They record over 200 triumphs, starting with three mythical triumphs of Romulus in 753 BCE and ending with that of Lucius Cornelius Balbus (19 BCE). [36] Fragments of similar date and style from Rome and provincial Italy appear to be modeled on the Augustan Fasti, and have been used to fill some of its gaps. [37]

Many ancient historical accounts also mention triumphs. Most Roman accounts of triumphs were written to provide their readers with a moral lesson, rather than to provide an accurate description of the triumphal process, procession, rites, and their meaning. This scarcity allows only the most tentative and generalised (and possibly misleading) reconstruction of triumphal ceremony, based on the combination of various incomplete accounts from different periods of Roman history.

Origins and Regal era Edit

The origins and development of this honour are obscure. Roman historians placed the first triumph in the mythical past some thought that it dated from Rome's foundation others thought it more ancient than that. Roman etymologists thought that the soldiers' chant of triumpe was a borrowing via Etruscan of the Greek thriambus (θρίαμβος), cried out by satyrs and other attendants in Dionysian and Bacchic processions. [38] Plutarch and some Roman sources traced the first Roman triumph and the "kingly" garb of the triumphator to Rome's first king Romulus, whose defeat of King Acron of the Caeninenses was thought coeval with Rome's foundation in 753 BCE. [39] Ovid projected a fabulous and poetic triumphal precedent in the return of the god Bacchus/Dionysus from his conquest of India, drawn in a golden chariot by tigers and surrounded by maenads, satyrs, and assorted drunkards. [40] [41] [42] Arrian attributed similar Dionysian and "Roman" elements to a victory procession of Alexander the Great. [43] Like much in Roman culture, elements of the triumph were based on Etruscan and Greek precursors in particular, the purple, embroidered toga picta worn by the triumphal general was thought to be derived from the royal toga of Rome's Etruscan kings.

For triumphs of the Roman regal era, the surviving Imperial Fasti Triumphales are incomplete. After three entries for the city's legendary founder Romulus, eleven lines of the list are missing. Next in sequence are Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and finally Tarquin "the proud", the last king. los Fasti were compiled some five centuries after the regal era, and probably represent an approved, official version of several different historical traditions. Likewise, the earliest surviving written histories of the regal era, written some centuries after it, attempt to reconcile various traditions, or else debate their merits. Dionysus, for example, gives Romulus three triumphs, the same number given in the Fasti. Livy gives him none, and credits him instead with the first spolia opima, in which the arms and armour were stripped off a defeated foe, then dedicated to Jupiter. Plutarch gives him one, complete with chariot. Tarquin has two triumphs in the Fasti but none in Dionysius. [44] No ancient source gives a triumph to Romulus' successor, the peaceful king Numa.

The Republic Edit

Rome's aristocrats expelled their last king as a tyrant and legislated the monarchy out of existence. They shared among themselves the kingship's former powers and authority in the form of magistracies. In the Republic, the highest possible magistracy was an elected consulship, which could be held for no more than a year at a time. In times of crisis or emergency, the Senate might appoint a dictator to serve a longer term but this could seem perilously close to the lifetime power of kings. The dictator Camillus was awarded four triumphs but was eventually exiled. Later Roman sources point to his triumph of 396 BCE as a cause for offense the chariot was drawn by four white horses, a combination properly reserved for Jupiter and Apollo – at least in later lore and poetry. [45] The demeanour of a triumphal Republican general would have been closely scrutinised by his aristocratic peers, as well as the symbols which he employed in his triumph they would be alert for any sign that he might aspire to be more than "king for a day".

In the Middle to Late Republic, Rome's expansion through conquest offered her political-military adventurers extraordinary opportunities for self-publicity the long-drawn series of wars between Rome and Carthage – the Punic Wars – produced twelve triumphs in ten years. Towards the end of the Republic, triumphs became still more frequent, [46] lavish, and competitive, with each display an attempt (usually successful) to outdo the last. To have a triumphal ancestor — even one long-dead — counted for a lot in Roman society and politics, and Cicero remarked that, in the race for power and influence, some individuals were not above vesting an inconveniently ordinary ancestor with triumphal grandeur and dignity, distorting an already fragmentary and unreliable historical tradition. [47] [48] [49]

To Roman historians, the growth of triumphal ostentation undermined Rome's ancient "peasant virtues". [50] Dionysius of Halicarnassus (c. 60 BCE to after 7 BCE) claimed that the triumphs of his day had "departed in every respect from the ancient tradition of frugality". [51] Moralists complained that successful foreign wars might have increased Rome's power, security, and wealth, but they also created and fed a degenerate appetite for bombastic display and shallow novelty. Livy traces the start of the rot to the triumph of Gnaeus Manlius Vulso in 186, which introduced ordinary Romans to such Galatian fripperies as specialist chefs, flute girls, and other "seductive dinner-party amusements". Pliny adds "sideboards and one-legged tables" to the list, [52] but lays responsibility for Rome's slide into luxury on the "1400 pounds of chased silver ware and 1500 pounds of golden vessels" brought somewhat earlier by Scipio Asiaticus for his triumph of 189 BCE. [53]

The three triumphs awarded to Pompey the Great were lavish and controversial. The first in 80 or 81 BCE was for his victory over King Hiarbas of Numidia in 79 BCE, granted by a cowed and divided Senate under the dictatorship of Pompey's patron Sulla. Pompey was only 24 and a mere equestrian. [54] Roman conservatives disapproved of such precocity [55] but others saw his youthful success as the mark of a prodigious military talent, divine favour, and personal brio and he also had an enthusiastic, popular following. His triumph, however, did not go quite to plan. His chariot was drawn by a team of elephants in order to represent his African conquest – and perhaps to outdo even the legendary triumph of Bacchus. They proved too bulky to pass through the triumphal gate, so Pompey had to dismount while a horse team was yoked in their place. [56] This embarrassment would have delighted his critics, and probably some of his soldiers — whose demands for cash had been near-mutinous. [57] Even so, his firm stand on the matter of cash raised his standing among the conservatives, and Pompey seems to have learned a lesson in populist politics. For his second triumph (71 BCE, the last in a series of four held that year) his cash gifts to his army were said to break all records, though the amounts in Plutarch's account are implausibly high: 6,000 sesterces to each soldier (about six times their annual pay) and about 5 million to each officer. [58]

Pompey was granted a third triumph in 61 BCE to celebrate his victory over Mithridates VI of Pontus. It was an opportunity to outdo all rivals — and even himself. Triumphs traditionally lasted for one day, but Pompey's went on for two in an unprecedented display of wealth and luxury. [59] Plutarch claimed that this triumph represented Pompey's domination over the entire world – on Rome's behalf – and an achievement to outshine even Alexander's. [60] [61] Pliny's narrative of this triumph dwells with ominous hindsight upon a gigantic portrait-bust of the triumphant general, a thing of "eastern splendor" entirely covered with pearls, anticipating his later humiliation and decapitation. [62]

Imperial era Edit

Following Caesar's murder, Octavian assumed permanent title of imperator and became permanent head of the Senate from 27 BCE (see principate) under the title and name Augustus. Only the year before, he had blocked the senatorial award of a triumph to Marcus Licinius Crassus the Younger, despite the latter's acclamation in the field as Imperator and his fulfillment of all traditional, Republican qualifying criteria except full consulship. Technically, generals in the Imperial era were legates of the ruling Emperor (Imperator). [63] Augustus claimed the victory as his own but permitted Crassus a second, which is listed on the Fasti for 27 BCE. [64] Crassus was also denied the rare (and technically permissible, in his case) honour of dedicating the spolia opima of this campaign to Jupiter Feretrius. [sesenta y cinco]

The last triumph listed on the Fasti Triumphales is for 19 BCE. By then, the triumph had been absorbed into the Augustan Imperial cult system, in which only the emperor [66] would be accorded such a supreme honour, as he was the supreme Imperator. The Senate, in true Republican style, would have held session to debate and decide the merits of the candidate but this was little more than good form. Augustan ideology insisted that Augustus had saved and restored the Republic, and it celebrated his triumph as a permanent condition, and his military, political, and religious leadership as responsible for an unprecedented era of stability, peace, and prosperity. From then on, emperors claimed – without seeming to claim – the triumph as an Imperial privilege. Those outside the Imperial family might be granted "triumphal ornaments" (Ornamenta triumphalia) or an ovation, such as Aulus Plautius under Claudius. The senate still debated and voted on such matters, though the outcome was probably already decided. [67] In the Imperial era, the number of triumphs fell sharply. [68]

Imperial panegyrics of the later Imperial era combine triumphal elements with Imperial ceremonies such as the consular investiture of Emperors, and the adventus, the formal "triumphal" arrival of an emperor in the various capitals of the Empire in his progress through the provinces. Some emperors were perpetually on the move and seldom or never went to Rome. [69] Christian emperor Constantius II entered Rome for the first time in his life in 357, several years after defeating his rival Magnentius, standing in his triumphal chariot "as if he were a statue". [70] Theodosius I celebrated his victory over the usurper Magnus Maximus in Rome on June 13, 389. [71] Claudian's panegyric to Emperor Honorius records the last known official triumph in the city of Rome and the western Empire. [72] [73] Emperor Honorius celebrated it conjointly with his sixth consulship on January 1, 404 his general Stilicho had defeated Visigothic King Alaric at the battles of Pollentia and Verona. [74] In Christian martyrology, Saint Telemachus was martyred by a mob while attempting to stop the customary gladiatorial games at this triumph, and gladiatorial games (munera gladiatoria) were banned in consequence. [75] [76] [77] In AD 438, however, the western emperor Valentinian III found cause to repeat the ban, which indicates that it was not always enforced. [78]

In 534, well into the Byzantine era, Justinian I awarded general Belisarius a triumph that included some "radically new" Christian and Byzantine elements. Belisarius successfully campaigned against his adversary Vandal leader Gelimer to restore the former Roman province of Africa to the control of Byzantium in the 533-534 Vandalic War. The triumph was held in the Eastern Roman capital of Constantinople. Historian Procopius, an eyewitness who had previously been in Belisarius's service, describes the procession's display of the loot seized from the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE by Roman Emperor Titus, including the Temple Menorah. The treasure had been stored in Rome's Temple of Peace after its display in Titus' own triumphal parade and its depiction on his triumphal arch then it was seized by the Vandals during their sack of Rome in 455 then it was taken from them in Belisarius' campaign. The objects themselves might well have recalled the ancient triumphs of Vespasian and his son Titus but Belisarius and Gelimer walked, as in an ovation. The procession did not end at Rome's Capitoline Temple with a sacrifice to Jupiter, but terminated at Hippodrome of Constantinople with a recitation of Christian prayer and the triumphant generals prostrate before the emperor. [79]


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Comentarios:

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