La historia

Invasión de Bragg de Kentucky


Invasión de Bragg de Kentucky

Invasión de Bragg de Kentucky

Mapa tomado de Batallas y líderes de la Guerra Civil: III: Retiro de Gettysburg, p.6

Regreso a La invasión de Kentucky de Bragg



Invasión de Bragg de Kentucky

El avance del Ejército Confederado en Kentucky en 1862 se inició para liberar a Tennessee del control de la Unión, alinear la ayuda de los habitantes de Kentucky insatisfechos y obtener acceso a los ricos suministros que Kentucky ofrecía.

El general Kirby Smith entró en el sureste de Kentucky avanzando hacia Louisville. El general Braxton Bragg avanzó hacia el noroeste para unirse al general Smith en Louisville. El general Bragg por vacilación perdió la oportunidad de capturar Louisville o de derrotar al Ejército de la Unión del general Don Carlos Buell mientras se apresuraba hacia el norte para proteger esa ciudad. El general Buell ocupó Louisville, reorganizó su ejército y luego marchó hacia Bardstown el 1 de octubre para localizar al general Bragg. Trabajando bajo la ilusión de que la fuerza de la Unión atacaría cerca de Versalles, el general Bragg se retiró de Bardstown el 3 de octubre. La ruta pasaba por Perryville. Fue aquí donde el poderoso ejército del norte atrapó al ejército del general Bragg y forzó una posición.

Temas. Este marcador histórico se incluye en esta lista de temas: Guerra, Civil de EE. UU. Una fecha histórica significativa para esta entrada es el 1 de octubre de 1987.

Localización. 37 & deg 38.961 & # 8242 N, 84 & deg 57.098 & # 8242 W. Marker está en Perryville, Kentucky, en el condado de Boyle. El marcador se encuentra en la intersección de South Buell Street (U.S. 68) y West Third Street, a la izquierda cuando se viaja hacia el sur por South Buell Street. Ubicado frente a Perryville

Departamento de Policia. Toque para ver el mapa. El marcador está en o cerca de esta dirección postal: 502 South Buell Street, Perryville KY 40468, Estados Unidos de América. Toque para obtener instrucciones.

Otros marcadores cercanos. Al menos otros 8 marcadores se encuentran a poca distancia de este marcador. La batalla de Perryville (aquí, junto a este marcador) La ciudad de Perryville (a unos pasos de este marcador) `` Si te encuentras con el enemigo, abrázalo '' (a unos pasos de este marcador) Perryville en el Crisol de guerra (dentro de distancia de grito de este marcador) Merchants 'Row / Street Fighting (a unos 300 pies de distancia, medidos en línea directa) un marcador diferente también llamado Batalla de Perryville (a unos 400 pies de distancia) Karrick-Parks House / Harberson's Station (a unos 500 pies de distancia ) Primer Asentamiento de Perryville (a unos 500 pies de distancia). Toque para obtener una lista y un mapa de todos los marcadores en Perryville.


Braxton Bragg: vida temprana y servicio militar

Braxton Bragg nació el 22 de marzo de 1817 en una familia de humildes recursos en Warrenton, Carolina del Norte. Su padre era un contactor y su madre, de la que Bragg rara vez hablaba en su vida posterior, había pasado un tiempo en la cárcel por matar a un esclavo liberado. Mientras su familia luchaba durante su juventud, el hermano político de Bragg lo ayudó a conseguir un puesto en la Academia Militar de los Estados Unidos en West Point en 1833. Se graduó en 1837 y terminó quinto en una clase de 50 cadetes.

¿Sabías? El triunfo del general Braxton Bragg en la batalla de Chickamauga en septiembre de 1863 fue la victoria confederada más significativa en la Guerra Civil y el Teatro Occidental de la década de 2019. Pero si bien la batalla demostró ser un éxito táctico, tuvo un costo aleccionador: Bragg & # x2019s Army of Tennessee sufrió más de 18,000 bajas & # x2014 un total de 3,000 más que sus oponentes de la Unión.

Bragg fue comisionado en la 3ra Artillería de los Estados Unidos y sirvió por primera vez en Florida durante la Segunda Guerra Seminole (1835-42). Luego fue trasladado a Charleston, Carolina del Sur, donde fue disciplinado después de criticar públicamente al estimado general estadounidense Winfield Scott. Más tarde, Bragg sirvió en la Guerra México-Estadounidense, en la que fue elogiado por su valentía y ascendido a teniente coronel después de la Batalla de Buena Vista en 1847. Bragg regresó de México como un héroe de guerra y pasó a servir en una variedad de deberes en tiempos de paz. En 1849 se casó con Eliza Brooks Ellis, una rica mujer de Luisiana. Bragg más tarde dimitiría del ejército en 1855 y se instalaría en una plantación de azúcar en Thibodaux, Luisiana.


Invasión de Bragg de Kentucky

El avance del Ejército Confederado en Kentucky en 1862 se inició para liberar a Tennessee del control de la Unión, alinear la ayuda de los habitantes de Kentucky insatisfechos y obtener acceso a los ricos suministros que Kentucky ofrecía.

El general Kirby Smith entró en el sureste de Kentucky avanzando hacia Louisville. El general Braxton Bragg avanzó hacia el noroeste para unirse al general Smith en Louisville. El general Bragg perdió por vacilación la oportunidad de capturar Louisville o de derrotar al Ejército de la Unión del general Don Carlos Buell mientras se apresuraba hacia el norte para proteger esa ciudad. El general Buell ocupó Louisville, reorganizó su ejército y luego marchó hacia Bardstown el 1 de octubre para localizar al general Bragg. Trabajando bajo la ilusión de que la fuerza de la Unión atacaría cerca de Versalles, el general Bragg se retiró de Bardstown el 3 de octubre. La ruta pasaba por Perryville. Fue aquí donde el poderoso ejército del norte atrapó al ejército del general Bragg y forzó una posición.

UTM (dato WGS84)16S E 680703 N 4168884
Grados decimales37.64935000, -84.95163333
Grados y minutos decimalesN 37 y deg 38.961 y apos, W 84 y deg 57.098 y apos
Grados, minutos y segundos37 & grados 38 & apos 57.66 & quot N, 84 & grados 57 & apos 5.88 & quot W
Indicaciones de viajemapas de Google
Código (s) de área859
Dirección postal más cercanaEn o cerca de 216 S Buell St, Perryville KY 40468, EE. UU.
Mapas alternativos Google Maps, MapQuest, Bing Maps, Yahoo Maps, MSR Maps, OpenCycleMap, MyTopo Maps, OpenStreetMap

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Con respecto al ejército de Tennesee y la invasión de Bragg & # x27 a Kentucky

Lamento plantear una pregunta tan específica que me ha molestado durante un tiempo. Cuando Bragg (y Kirby Smith) invadieron Kentucky, ¿cuántos hombres tenía su fuerza combinada? Sé que Bragg luchó contra Perryville con alrededor de 17.000 hombres, pero que esta no fue toda la fuerza que invadió Kentucky o incluso toda la fuerza de Bragg & # x27. Entiendo que esta pregunta puede tener una de esas respuestas simples, no tan simples, por lo tanto, SI esta pregunta es una de esas respuestas complejas, simplemente pregunto cuántos hombres podría haber traído Bragg de manera realista en Perryville.

Parece que es difícil determinar la fuerza exacta de las fuerzas de Bragg & # x27 y Kirby Smith & # x27. Polk parece haber sido el único comandante rebelde que informó su fuerza efectiva (o al menos, el único informe en los Documentos Oficiales para el período), y ese informe, al 22 de agosto, tiene a Polk & # x27s Wing en 15.588. 7.261 en Cheatham & # x27s Division y 8.327 en Withers & # x27 Division.

La fuerza inicial de Kirby Smith & # x27s es de cuatro divisiones (bajo Cleburne, Churchill, Heth y Stevenson), creo, la mayor de las cuales se dejó alrededor de Cumberland Gap para eliminar las fuerzas federales que lo ocupaban. Las dos brigadas que componían Cleburne & # x27s Division estaban prestadas por Bragg y estaban de regreso con el ejército por Perryville. En cuanto a cuál era la fuerza de estas cuatro divisiones, honestamente, no tengo ni idea.

La fuerza de Bragg & # x27s es también de cuatro divisiones, bajo Cheatham, Withers, Buckner y Patton Anderson. Todos menos Withers & # x27 Division están en Perryville, si recuerdo bien, Withers & # x27 Division recibió la orden de ir a Frankfort el día antes de la pelea en Perryville.

Entonces, si Bragg hubiera esperado otro día para separar a Withers & # x27 Division, tendría otros 7.000 a 8.000 hombres en Perryville. Con tal aumento en la mano de obra (incluso podría superar en número al número de federales comprometidos), Bragg probablemente destruya McCook & # x27s Corps.


Bragg en la guerra civil

A pesar de sus severas disciplinas, el presidente Jefferson Davis nombró a Bragg general de brigada cuando estalló la guerra. En 1862, Bragg fue nombrado general completo. Aunque era brillante planeando ataques, no los ejecutó bien. Tuvo muchas peleas con oficiales superiores.

En 1863, después de su victoria en la batalla de Chickamauga, Bragg no aprovechó la oportunidad para derrotar a las tropas de la Unión. En cambio, dejó que la Unión se retirara a Chattanooga, ya que pensaba que habría más posibilidades de victoria. El general de la Unión Ulysses S. Grant rescató a las fuerzas de la Unión. Debido a esto, Bragg se convirtió en uno de los hombres más odiados de la Guerra civil.

Después de una mayor humillación en otras batallas, Bragg se convirtió en asesor militar de su amigo Jefferson Davis. Cuando terminó la guerra, trabajó como ingeniero civil y murió a los 59 años.


Martes, 28 de agosto de 2012

Invasión de Kentucky: los generales

Mayor General Don Carlos Buell
Don Carlos Buell, un nativo de Ohio, sirvió con distinción en la Guerra Mexicana de 1846-48. Cuando comenzó la Guerra Civil, se convirtió en general de brigada en el Ejército del Potomac. En noviembre de 1861, el general George McClellan recomendó a Buell que reemplazara a William T. Sherman como comandante del Departamento de Ohio para las operaciones para liberar el este de Tennessee de la Confederación. Creyendo que no tenía las fuerzas necesarias para controlar todo Tennessee y que Nashville era militarmente más importante, Buell se trasladó a esa capital sin oposición, ocupando Nashville el 25 de febrero de 1862.

En la primavera de ese mismo año, mientras el ejército confederado bajo el mando del general Albert Sidney Johnston se retiraba a Corinto, Mississippi, Buell lo perseguía. Al llegar a Pittsburg Landing el 7 de abril, el segundo día de la sangrienta Batalla de Shiloh, Buell jugó un papel clave que aseguró una victoria de la Unión, pero que avergonzó al comandante general, U.S. Grant, provocando una de las muchas controversias posteriores a la batalla.

Gen. Braxton Bragg

También para esta fecha, el general Bragg había reorganizado su ejército de Mississippi de 30.000 hombres en 2 alas. El ala derecha está comandada por el mayor general Leonidas Polk, y está formada por las divisiones de infantería Cheatham & # 8217 y Wither & # 8217 y la brigada de caballería Lay & # 8217. El ala izquierda está comandada por el mayor general William J. Hardee, y está formada por las divisiones de infantería Simon Buckner & # 8217 y Patton Anderson & # 8217s, y la Brigada de Caballería Wheeler & # 8217s. La Brigada de Wood, incluido el 32 Regimiento de Infantería de Mississippi, se coloca en la División de Buckner & # 8217. Comenzarán su invasión hoy cruzando el río Tennessee. Pronto, los confederados estarán marchando por Kentucky antes de que Buell o Washington D.C tengan alguna idea de dónde están o qué están haciendo.

General Edmund Kirby Smith
Bragg se marcha creyendo que tiene el apoyo de su compañero comandante, el general Edmund Kirby Smith, para unir fuerzas y cortar la línea de comunicación de Buell al mudarse de Chattanooga para tomar Nashville. Pero pronto se dará cuenta de que Smith tiene planes diferentes. Smith conducirá a su ejército de 20.000 personas al este de Kentucky con Lexington como su objetivo inmediato. Aunque Bragg era el mayor de Smith en rango, se verá obligado a hacer de Kentucky su objetivo y se verá obligado a reaccionar tanto a los movimientos de Smith como a las fuerzas enemigas que encuentre.

La invasión de Kentucky de Bragg & # 8217 será prácticamente simultánea con la invasión de Maryland de Robert E. Lee & # 8217. Estos 2 movimientos causarán presagios ominosos y consternación en el Norte. La guerra se acercará mucho a la gente del Norte cuando los destacamentos confederados aparezcan pronto cerca de Covington, a la vista de Cincinnati, y también al otro lado del río Potomac hacia Maryland.

Pero el jueves 28 de agosto, con apenas 17 años, mi bisabuelo, Pvt. Nathan Oakes del 32º Regimiento de Infantería de Mississippi junto con el tío abuelo William Turner, cruzaron a Tennessee con la fuerza de invasión confederada. Pronto verán peleas en Kentucky. Los soldados emocionados marchan desde Chattanooga cantando himnos y, por supuesto, "Dixie". Sin embargo, con el tiempo, sus canciones serán silenciadas por la ardua caminata desde el valle de Tennessee, a través de las montañas en el borde este de la meseta de Cumberland.

Campaña de Kentucky de Bragg, 1862
Fuente: Civil War Trust

En la cima de la campaña, el ejército confederado luchará contra el ejército federal hasta el norte de Perryville en octubre. Aunque Buell detendrá el avance confederado, desafortunadamente para él no persigue a los confederados en retirada lo suficientemente rápido después de la batalla del 8 de octubre. Como consecuencia, poco después, Buell será relevado de su mando y reemplazado por el general William Rosecrans.

Fuentes: Ejército del corazón: el ejército de Tennessee, 1861-1862, Thomas Lawrence Connelly Una Ilíada americana: la historia de la guerra civil, Charles P. Roland Stone's River: el punto de inflexión de la guerra civil, Wilson J. Vance


Contenido

Los ciudadanos de Kentucky estaban divididos con respecto a los temas centrales de la Guerra Civil. En 1860, los esclavos componían el 19,5% de la población de la Commonwealth, y muchos unionistas de Kentucky no veían nada malo en la "institución peculiar". [5] La Commonwealth estaba unida más al sur por el río Mississippi y sus afluentes, que eran la principal salida comercial de sus excedentes de producción, aunque las conexiones ferroviarias con el norte comenzaban a disminuir la importancia de este vínculo. [6] Los antepasados ​​de muchos habitantes de Kentucky procedían de estados del sur como Virginia, Carolina del Norte y Tennessee, pero muchos niños de Kentucky estaban comenzando a emigrar hacia el norte. [6]

Kentucky, junto con Carolina del Norte, también contaba con los mejores sistemas educativos del Sur. La Universidad de Transilvania había sido durante mucho tiempo una de las instituciones de educación superior más respetadas de la nación, y aunque su reputación había comenzado a desvanecerse en 1860, otras escuelas de Kentucky como Center College y Georgetown College estaban ganando prominencia. [7]

Políticamente, la Commonwealth había producido algunos de los líderes más conocidos del país. Los ex vicepresidentes John C. Breckinridge y Richard M. Johnson procedían del estado, al igual que Henry Clay, John J. Crittenden, el presidente estadounidense Abraham Lincoln y el presidente confederado Jefferson Davis. [8] Sin embargo, en el momento de la Guerra Civil, Kentucky estaba en un estado políticamente confuso. El declive del Partido Whig, que Clay había fundado, había dejado a muchos políticos en busca de una identidad. [9] Muchos se unieron al Partido Demócrata, unos pocos se unieron al Partido Republicano recién formado, mientras que otros se asociaron con uno de los numerosos partidos menores, como el Partido Know Nothing. [9] En las elecciones presidenciales de 1860, el Partido de la Unión Constitucional, con el nativo de Tennessee John Bell como su candidato presidencial y el nativo de Massachusetts Edward Everett como su candidato a vicepresidente, ganó el estado. El partido estaba compuesto principalmente por ex Whigs y Know-Nothings. [10]

Kentucky fue estratégicamente importante tanto para el norte como para el sur. La Commonwealth ocupaba el noveno lugar en población en 1860 y era un importante productor de productos agrícolas como el tabaco, el maíz, el trigo, el cáñamo y el lino. [6] Geográficamente, Kentucky era importante para el sur porque el río Ohio proporcionaría un límite defendible a lo largo de todo el estado. [6]

El gobernador de Kentucky, Beriah Magoffin, creía que se habían violado los derechos de los estados del sur y favorecía el derecho a la secesión, pero buscó todas las vías posibles para evitarlo. [11] El 9 de diciembre de 1860, envió una carta a los otros gobernadores del estado esclavista sugiriendo que llegaran a un acuerdo con el Norte que incluiría la aplicación estricta de la Ley de Esclavos Fugitivos, una división de territorios comunes en el paralelo 37. una garantía de libre uso del río Mississippi y un veto del Sur sobre la legislación esclavista. [12] Magoffin propuso una conferencia de estados esclavistas, seguida de una conferencia de todos los estados para asegurar estas concesiones. [12] Debido al ritmo cada vez mayor de los acontecimientos, nunca se celebró ninguna conferencia. [12]

Magoffin convocó una sesión especial de la Asamblea General de Kentucky el 27 de diciembre de 1860 y pidió a los legisladores una convención de residentes de Kentucky para decidir el curso de la Commonwealth con respecto a la secesión. [12] Sin embargo, la mayoría de la Asamblea General tenía simpatías unionistas y declinó la solicitud del gobernador, [12] por temor a que los votantes del estado favorecieran la secesión. [13] Sin embargo, la Asamblea envió seis delegados a una Conferencia de Paz del 4 de febrero en Washington, DC, y pidió al Congreso que convocara una convención nacional para considerar posibles resoluciones a la crisis de la secesión, incluido el Compromiso Crittenden, escrito por Kentuckian John J . Crittenden. [14]

Cuando la Asamblea General se reunió nuevamente el 20 de marzo, convocó a una convención de los estados fronterizos en Frankfort, la capital de Kentucky, el 27 de mayo de 1861. [14] Una vez más, el llamado no fue atendido. Los legisladores también aprobaron una propuesta de Decimotercera Enmienda a la Constitución que habría garantizado la esclavitud en los estados donde ya era legal. [14]

El presidente Lincoln reconoció la importancia de Kentucky cuando, en una carta de septiembre de 1861 a Orville Browning, [15] escribió:

Creo que perder Kentucky es casi lo mismo que perder todo el partido. Kentucky desapareció, no podemos retener a Missouri ni a Maryland. Todo esto en nuestra contra, y el trabajo en nuestras manos es demasiado grande para nosotros. También daríamos nuestro consentimiento para la separación de inmediato, incluida la rendición de esta capital. [16] [17]

El 15 de abril de 1861, el presidente Lincoln envió un telegrama al gobernador de Kentucky, Beriah Magoffin, solicitando que la Commonwealth proporcionara parte de las 75.000 tropas iniciales para sofocar la rebelión. [14] Magoffin, un simpatizante sureño, respondió: "Presidente Lincoln, Washington, DC No enviaré ni un hombre ni un dólar con el perverso propósito de someter a mis estados hermanos del sur. B. Magoffin" [18] En cambio, la mayoría de los habitantes de Kentucky favorecieron a John La posición de J. Crittenden de que el Commonwealth debería actuar como mediador entre las dos partes. [14] Con ese fin, ambas cámaras de la Asamblea General aprobaron declaraciones de neutralidad, cargo declarado oficialmente por el gobernador Magoffin el 20 de mayo de 1861. [14]

Ambas partes respetaron la neutralidad de la Commonwealth, pero se posicionaron estratégicamente para aprovechar cualquier cambio en la situación. Las fuerzas de la Unión establecieron Camp Clay en Ohio, justo al norte de la ciudad de Newport, Kentucky, y Camp Joe Holt en Indiana, frente a Louisville, Kentucky. [19] Mientras tanto, las tropas confederadas construyeron los Fuertes Donelson y Henry justo al otro lado de la frontera sur de Kentucky en Tennessee, y colocaron tropas a menos de 50 yardas de Cumberland Gap. [19] Los voluntarios de la Commonwealth dejaron el estado para unirse a cualquier bando que favorecieran. [19] También se llevaron a cabo algunos reclutamientos encubiertos. [20] Casi 60 regimientos de infantería sirvieron en los ejércitos de la Unión frente a solo 9 en el Confederado. Sin embargo, un número bastante grande de equipos de caballería se unió a este último. John Breckenridge originalmente comandó la "Brigada de Huérfanos" del Ejército de Tennessee, que constaba de la 2ª, 3ª, 4ª, 6ª y 9ª Infantería de Kentucky. El apodo de la brigada surgió supuestamente porque los condados de origen de los soldados estuvieron ocupados por tropas de la Unión durante la mayor parte de la guerra y no pudieron volver a casa con ellos.

Al darse cuenta de que la neutralidad se estaba volviendo cada vez menos factible, seis prominentes residentes de Kentucky se reunieron para encontrar alguna solución para un estado atrapado en medio de un conflicto. El gobernador Magoffin, John C. Breckinridge y Richard Hawes representaron la posición de los secesionistas, mientras que Crittenden, Archibald Dixon y S. S. Nicholas defendieron la causa del Norte. [20] Sin embargo, el sexteto sólo acordó continuar la doctrina de la neutralidad y pidió la formación de una junta de cinco miembros para coordinar la defensa de la Commonwealth. [21] La Asamblea General creó la junta el 24 de mayo y le otorgó la supervisión de las fuerzas armadas del estado, un poder reservado en la Constitución de Kentucky para el gobernador. [21]

Las fuerzas militares de la Commonwealth, sin embargo, demostraron estar tan divididas como la población en general. La Guardia Estatal, bajo el mando de Simon B. Buckner, favoreció en gran medida la causa Confederada, mientras que la Guardia Nacional recién formada eran en su mayoría unionistas. [21] Varias situaciones cercanas casi iniciaron un conflicto dentro del estado, pero Buckner negoció con éxito con el general de la Unión George B. McClellan y el gobernador de Tennessee Isham Harris para mantener la neutralidad de la Commonwealth durante el verano. [21]

Elecciones de 1861 Editar

Sin embargo, la marea de la opinión pública estaba comenzando a cambiar en Kentucky. En una elección especial para el Congreso celebrada el 20 de junio de 1861, los candidatos unionistas ganaron nueve de los diez escaños del Congreso de Kentucky. [13] Los simpatizantes confederados ganaron solo la región de la Compra de Jackson, [22] que estaba unida económicamente a Tennessee por los ríos Cumberland y Tennessee. [23] Al ver una derrota inminente en las urnas, muchos simpatizantes confederados boicotearon la elección, el número total de votos emitidos fue un poco más de la mitad del número que se había emitido en las elecciones del año anterior. [24] El gobernador Magoffin recibió un nuevo golpe en las elecciones del 5 de agosto para los legisladores estatales. Esta elección resultó en mayorías unionistas a prueba de veto de 76–24 en la Cámara y 27–11 en el Senado. [25]

A partir de ese momento, la mayoría de los vetos de Magoffin para proteger los intereses del sur fueron anulados en la Asamblea General. [26] Después de chocar con la Asamblea durante más de un año incluso en los temas más triviales, Magoffin decidió que la renuncia era su única opción. El vicegobernador de Magoffin, Linn Boyd, había muerto en el cargo, y el presidente del Senado, John Fisk, el siguiente en la fila para la gobernación, no era aceptable para Magoffin como sucesor. En un intrincado plan elaborado con la Asamblea General, Fisk renunció como presidente y el Senado elevó al cargo al sucesor elegido de Magoffin, James F. Robinson. Magoffin luego renunció, promoviendo a Robinson a gobernador, y Fisk fue reelegido como presidente del Senado.

Casi inmediatamente después de los resultados de las elecciones de 1861, William "Bull" Nelson estableció Camp Dick Robinson, un campo de reclutamiento de la Unión, en el condado de Garrard. [24] Cuando Crittenden se opuso a esta violación de la neutralidad de Kentucky, Nelson respondió: "Que un campamento de hombres leales de la Unión, nativos de Kentucky, debería reunirse en un campamento bajo la bandera de la Unión y en su suelo natal debería ser motivo de aprehensión. algo que no entiendo claramente ". [27] El gobernador Magoffin apeló al presidente Lincoln para que cerrara el campo, pero él se negó. [28] Mientras tanto, los voluntarios confederados cruzaron encubiertamente la frontera de Tennessee y se concentraron en Camp Boone, al sur de Guthrie. [28] La frágil neutralidad de Kentucky estaba llegando a su fin.

El 4 de septiembre de 1861, el general de división confederado Leonidas Polk violó la neutralidad de la Commonwealth al ordenar al general de brigada Gideon Johnson Pillow ocupar Columbus. [28] Colón fue de importancia estratégica tanto porque era el término del ferrocarril de Mobile y Ohio como por su posición a lo largo del río Mississippi. [29] Polk construyó Fort DuRussey en los altos acantilados de Columbus y lo equipó con 143 cañones. [30] Polk llamó al fuerte "El Gibraltar del Oeste". [30] Para controlar el tráfico a lo largo del río, Polk estiró una cadena de ancla a través del río desde la orilla en Columbus hasta la orilla opuesta en Belmont, Missouri. [29] Cada eslabón de la cadena medía veinticinco centímetros de largo por veinte de ancho y pesaba veinte libras. [31] La cadena pronto se rompió por su propio peso, pero las fuerzas de la Unión no se enteraron de este hecho hasta principios de 1862. [31]

En respuesta a la invasión confederada, el general de brigada de la Unión Ulysses S. Grant salió de El Cairo, Illinois y entró en Paducah, Kentucky el 6 de septiembre, lo que le dio a la Unión el control del extremo norte del ferrocarril de Nueva Orleans y Ohio [29] y la desembocadura del el río Tennessee. El gobernador Magoffin denunció a ambas partes por violar la neutralidad de la Commonwealth y pidió que ambas partes se retiren. [32] Sin embargo, el 7 de septiembre de 1861, la Asamblea General aprobó una resolución ordenando la retirada de sólo las fuerzas confederadas. [32] Magoffin vetó la resolución, pero ambas cámaras anularon el veto y Magoffin emitió la proclamación. [33] La Asamblea General ordenó que se izara la bandera de los Estados Unidos sobre el capitolio del estado en Frankfort, declarando su lealtad a la Unión.

Su neutralidad rota, ambos lados rápidamente se movieron para establecer posiciones ventajosas en la Commonwealth. Las fuerzas confederadas al mando de Albert Sidney Johnston formaron una línea en las regiones del sur de Kentucky y las regiones del norte de Tennessee, que se extendía desde Columbus en el oeste hasta Cumberland Gap en el este. [34] Johnston envió a Simon B. Buckner para fortalecer el medio de la línea en Bowling Green. [35] Buckner llegó el 18 de septiembre de 1861 e inmediatamente comenzó a realizar intensas sesiones de instrucción ya construir elaboradas defensas en previsión de una huelga sindical. [36] Tan extensas eran las fortificaciones en Bowling Green que un oficial de la Unión que más tarde las inspeccionó comentó: "El trabajo ha sido inmenso - sus tropas no pueden ser bien entrenadas - su tiempo debe haber sido gastado principalmente en trabajo duro, con el hacha y pala." [36]

Siendo decididamente el gobierno electo de Kentucky Union, un grupo de simpatizantes del sur comenzó a formular un plan para crear un gobierno en la sombra confederado para la Commonwealth. Después de una reunión preliminar el 29 de octubre de 1861, los delegados de 68 de los 110 condados de Kentucky se reunieron en la Casa Clark en Russellville el 18 de noviembre. [37] La ​​convención aprobó una ordenanza de secesión, adoptó un nuevo sello estatal y eligió al nativo del condado de Scott. George W. Johnson como gobernador. [37] Bowling Green, ahora ocupada por el propio general Johnston, fue designada como la capital del estado, aunque los delegados establecieron que el gobierno podría reunirse en cualquier lugar que el consejo legislativo provisional y el gobernador consideraran apropiado. [38] Al no poder desarrollar una constitución y un sistema de leyes completos, los delegados votaron que "la Constitución y las leyes de Kentucky, que no son incompatibles con las leyes de esta Convención, y el establecimiento de este Gobierno, y las leyes que puedan ser promulgadas por el Gobernador y el Consejo, serán las leyes de este estado ". [38] Aunque el presidente Davis tenía alguna reserva sobre la elusión de la Asamblea General electa al formar el gobierno confederado, Kentucky fue admitido en la Confederación el 10 de diciembre de 1861. [39] Kentucky estaba representado por la estrella central en la bandera de batalla confederada. . [40]

Aunque existió durante toda la guerra, el gobierno provisional de Kentucky tuvo muy poco efecto sobre los eventos en la Commonwealth o en la guerra. Cuando el general Johnston abandonó Bowling Green a principios de 1862, los oficiales del gobierno viajaron con su ejército y el gobernador Johnson murió en servicio activo en la batalla de Shiloh. [39] Continuando viajando con el Ejército de Tennessee, el gobierno volvió a entrar en Kentucky durante la campaña de Braxton Bragg en la Commonwealth, pero fue expulsado permanentemente después de la Batalla de Perryville. [37] Desde ese momento en adelante, el gobierno existió principalmente en el papel, [37] y se disolvió después de la guerra. [41]

Muchas pequeñas escaramuzas ocurrieron en Kentucky en 1861, incluida la "Primera pelea de Forrest" en Sacramento, pero las batallas de gran importancia militar no comenzaron en serio hasta 1862.

Batalla de Mill Springs Editar

En enero de 1862, el general de la Unión George H. Thomas comenzó a avanzar en la posición de George B. Crittenden en Mill Springs. [42] En condiciones de lluvia, el ejército de Thomas se movió lentamente, y Crittenden avanzó para enfrentarlos antes de que pudieran ser reforzados por las fuerzas de la cercana Somerset. [42] La batalla comenzó el 19 de enero de 1862 y desde el principio favoreció a las fuerzas de Crittenden. [43] Sin embargo, en la confusión causada por la lluvia y la niebla, Felix Zollicoffer, comandante de la Primera Brigada de Crittenden, cabalgó en medio de las fuerzas de la Unión. [43] Un oficial confederado entró al galope y le gritó a Zollicoffer que le informara de su error. [43] Al ser identificado, Zollicoffer fue disparado fuera de la silla y asesinado, [43] descorazonando a los confederados y cambiando el rumbo de la batalla. [23] Llegaron los refuerzos de Thomas y las fuerzas de Crittenden se vieron obligadas a retirarse a través del río Cumberland inundado. [44] Muchos se ahogaron en el proceso, y Crittenden recibió la culpa de la debacle. [44]

Fuertes Henry y Donelson Editar

El general Johnston se enteró de la derrota de Crittenden en Mill Springs a través de un relato de la batalla impreso en un periódico de Louisville. Sin embargo, tenía mayores preocupaciones, ya que Ulysses S. Grant avanzaba por los ríos Cumberland y Tennessee hacia Forts Henry y Donelson. Los acorazados de la Unión derrotaron a las cañoneras del río Confederado en el río Mississippi durante la Batalla de Lucas Bend el 11 de enero, obligándolos a regresar a Columbus. [45] Tras la victoria de Grant en la batalla de Belmont, el general Polk había anticipado que las fuerzas de la Unión apuntarían al río Mississippi y atacarían a Columbus, y había retirado la mayoría de sus fuerzas a ese lugar. Lloyd Tilghman se quedó para defender Fort Henry con menos de 3.000 hombres. [46] Las tropas de la Unión comenzaron su asalto al fuerte el 5 de febrero de 1862 y Tilghman se rindió al día siguiente. [46]

El general Johnston respondió ordenando a Pillow, Buckner y John B. Floyd que defendieran Fort Donelson. [46] Ninguno de los tres recibió el mando específicamente, una decisión que resultaría costosa. [47] Grant llegó a Donelson el 13 de febrero y se encontró superado en número por unos 3.000 soldados. [47] Floyd no pudo capitalizar su ventaja, sin embargo, y Grant fue reforzado al día siguiente. [47] El 15 de febrero, los confederados casi habían despejado una ruta de escape a Nashville, pero las discusiones entre los generales retrasaron la retirada. [47] Floyd tomó un barco de vapor y lo usó para evacuar a sus fuerzas, mientras Pillow huyó en un bote de remos. [47] Buckner, solo al mando, propuso un alto el fuego a Grant mientras se negociaban los términos de la rendición. [47] La ​​respuesta de Grant, que sólo se podía aceptar "una rendición incondicional e inmediata", lo convirtió en un héroe a los ojos de la Unión y le valió el apodo de Grant "Entrega incondicional". [47]

Retirada confederada Editar

El colapso de los Fuertes Henry y Donelson hizo insostenible la posición de Polk en Columbus y los confederados se vieron obligados a abandonar "El Gibraltar del Oeste". Su línea rota, Johnston abandonó Bowling Green el 11 de febrero de 1862, retirándose primero a Nashville, luego más al sur para unirse a P. G. T. Beauregard y Braxton Bragg en Corinth, Mississippi. [48] ​​Cumberland Gap, la última pieza de la línea de Johnston, finalmente cayó ante las fuerzas de la Unión en junio de 1862. [49]

Casi inmediatamente después de la retirada confederada de Kentucky, el general confederado John Hunt Morgan comenzó la primera de sus incursiones en el estado. En mayo de 1862, los pasajeros de Morgan capturaron dos trenes de la Unión en Cave City, pero su objetivo aparente era agitar a las fuerzas de la Unión; dejó en libertad condicional a todos a bordo, devolvió uno de los trenes y envió a los ocupantes de regreso a Louisville. [50] Este movimiento logró poco excepto animar a Morgan para una incursión más extensa en julio.

El 4 de julio de 1862, Morgan y sus hombres abandonaron Knoxville, Tennessee y capturaron Tompkinsville cinco días después. [50] Después de una breve parada en Glasgow, de donde provenían muchas de las tropas de Morgan, continuaron hacia el Líbano y lo capturaron el 12 de julio. [51] Desde allí, la caballería se detuvo en Harrodsburg y Georgetown, y al ver que Lexington también estaba fuertemente fortificados, dirigieron su atención a la ciudad de Cynthiana. [52] Morgan volvió a salir victorioso en Cynthiana, pero con los refuerzos de la Unión acercándose a él, liberó a todos los soldados capturados de la batalla y se dirigió a París. [53]

A su salida de la Commonwealth, la caballería recogió a 50 reclutas en Richmond. [53] They also stopped in Somerset, where Morgan instructed his telegrapher, George "Lightning" Ellsworth to send taunting messages to General Jeremiah Boyle and publisher George Prentice. [53] At the completion of his escape through the Commonwealth, Morgan claimed to have captured and paroled 1,200 enemy soldiers, recruited 300 men and acquired several hundred horses for his cavalry, used or destroyed supplies in seventeen towns, and incurred fewer than 100 casualties. [53]

Morgan's exploits encouraged Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith to move on Kentucky. [54] After conferring with General Braxton Bragg at Chattanooga, Smith moved to drive George W. Morgan from Cumberland Gap in August 1862. [54] Both generals understood that Smith would capture Cumberland Gap, then join Bragg in Middle Tennessee. [23] When the two armies met, Bragg would command the combined force against Don Carlos Buell in Nashville. [54] Once Nashville was captured, Bragg and Smith would commence an invasion of Kentucky. [23]

As the battle at Cumberland Gap wore on, Morgan refused to retreat or surrender his position. [23] Thinking an invasion of Kentucky was preferable to a long siege on the Gap, Smith left a detachment to handle Morgan and proceeded toward Lexington, abandoning the plan to join Bragg and capture Nashville. [23] The move forced Bragg's hand, and he too entered Kentucky on August 28. [55] As Smith progressed toward Lexington, Indiana governor Oliver P. Morton decided that Governor Robinson was doing too little to support the Union cause. [23] He dispatched regiments across the Ohio into Louisville, and considered himself governor of both Indiana and Kentucky. [23]

Battle of Richmond Edit

Upon learning of Smith's advance into Kentucky, General "Bull" Nelson prepared to engage the invading army at the Kentucky River to take advantage of the better terrain, but delayed the engagement so that more reinforcements could arrive. [23] He ordered the brigades under Mahlon Manson and Charles Cruft not to attack Smith, but to withdraw to Lexington, but the orders either were not delivered in time, or they were ignored. [56]

After some preliminary skirmishes, Smith's army met Mahlon's brigade at Richmond, Kentucky on August 30. Smith's more experienced troops broke the center of the Union line, and Mahlon fell back to Richmond Cemetery. [56] By the afternoon, General Nelson arrived and tried to rally the troops. Riding along the front of the Union line, the portly Nelson exclaimed, "Boys, if they can't hit me, they can't hit a barn door!" [56] Unfortunately for Nelson, he was soon hit twice by Confederate gunfire. [57] Though Nelson was seriously wounded, he escaped the battle as Confederate cavalry moved to cut off the Union retreat. [55] He left behind 206 killed, 844 wounded, and 4,303 missing. [58] With only 98 killed, 492 wounded, and 10 missing, Smith had won one of the most complete Confederate victories of the entire war. [58]

Battle of Munfordville Edit

While Smith was continuing on to Lexington, Bragg was just entering Kentucky, having delayed at Chattanooga until August 28. [55] Bragg was told that there were ample supplies in the Glasgow area, but upon learning that Bragg had entered Kentucky, Buell left George Thomas to guard Nashville and moved the rest of his army to heavily fortified Bowling Green. [59]

Meanwhile, Smith had dispatched Colonel John Scott to look for Bragg. [60] On the night of September 13, Scott encountered John T. Wilder at Munfordville, and demanded his surrender. [61] Scott requested the aid of James Chalmers' Mississippi brigade, [60] which moved to support Scott throughout the night. [61] The assault commenced the next morning, and though outnumbered, Scott's forces inflicted more than 200 casualties in the early fighting. [60] At 9:30 AM, Chalmers tried to intimidate Wilder into surrender, sending a flag of truce with the message, "You have made a gallant defense of your position, and to avoid further bloodshed I demand an unconditional surrender of your forces. I have six regiments of infantry, one battalion of infantry sharpshooters, and have just been reinforced by a brigade of cavalry, under Colonel Scott, with two battalions of infantry." Upon receiving this message, Wilder replied "Thank you for your compliments. If you wish to avoid further bloodshed, keep out of the reach of my guns." [62]

Wilder was soon reinforced by Colonel Cyrus L. Dunham, who brought a force of 4,000 men. [60] Scott and Chalmers sought assistance from Bragg's main army. [60] Bragg was incensed, but arrived the next day to take charge of the battle. [60] Bragg deployed forces under William J. Hardee and Leonidas Polk to surround the town, delaying his assault until September 17. [60] Bragg sent another request for the force's surrender. [60] At a council of war, Wilder made an unusual request of Bragg's subordinate, Simon B. Buckner– that he be allowed to inspect the forces that now surrounded him to determine whether surrender were the correct course of action. [63] Delighted by this supreme compliment, Buckner obliged, and after surveying the Confederate line, Wilder surrendered. [64]

Wilder's force of some 4,000 men was paroled and directed to Bowling Green, where Bragg hoped they would be a drain on Buell's supplies. [65] The delay caused by the Confederate victory at Munfordville may well have cost them a much more important prize– Louisville. [66]

Inauguration of Governor Hawes Edit

While Bragg rested his troops and planned his next move, Buell marched north from Bowling Green and arrived in Louisville on September 25. [65] Seeing his primary objective fallen into Union hands, Bragg turned to Bardstown, where he had expected to meet Smith. [65] Smith was actually operating independently near Frankfort, and Bragg, now painfully aware that the lack of cooperation with Smith might prove the Confederates' undoing in Kentucky, began to disperse his troops into defensive postures at Bardstown, Shelbyville, and Danville. [67]

Both Bragg and Smith had been disappointed with the number of volunteers from Kentucky. Wagonloads of rifles had been sent to the Commonwealth to equip the anticipated recruits, but although Confederate sympathies were high, willing volunteers were not, and many of the rifles remained on the wagons. [67] Bragg hoped to rally potential recruits by installing Richard Hawes, governor of Kentucky's Confederate shadow government, in an inauguration ceremony in Frankfort. [68] The elected government fled to Louisville just before the Confederates arrived in Frankfort. [69]

The ceremony took place on October 4, 1862. [70] First, Bragg addressed the assembled partisan crowd, promising to defend the Commonwealth. [41] Then Hawes, who had taken the oath of office months earlier while traveling with Bragg's Army of Tennessee, delivered a lengthy inaugural address. [71] He told the crowd that the provisional government would "institute as far as possible such civil institutions, as will protect persons and property, until the people in their sovereign capacity can establish a permanent Government founded on the will of the majority." [41]

The promises made by Bragg and Hawes were short-lived. Before the inaugural ball could be held, Buell's forces had descended on the state capital, firing artillery shells that shattered the jovial atmosphere and put the Confederate forces to flight. [41] Bragg had sorely underestimated Buell's ability to make a rapid advance on his position. [72] While preparations were being made for Hawes' inauguration, Buell was already forcing the Confederate army from Shelbyville. [72] Bragg ordered Leonidas Polk from Bardstown to attack Buell's flank, but Polk was already under attack and retreating to Bryantsville. [72] Bragg began a retreat from Frankfort to Harrodsburg to regroup with Polk. [72] Meanwhile, Smith prepared to defend Lexington, where he assumed the bulk of Buell's force would be directed. [73]

Battle of Perryville Edit

By October 7, Polk's forces had fallen back to the town of Perryville. The dry summer of 1862 had left water in short supply, and when the Union troops learned of water in Perryville's Doctor's Creek, they began to move on the Confederate position. Bragg shared Smith's assumption that the bulk of the Union attack would be directed at Lexington and Frankfort, and ordered Polk's forces to attack and destroy the approaching Union force before proceeding to Versailles to meet Smith. The Confederate soldiers in Perryville, however, realized that a much larger force was approaching, and assumed a defensive posture. In fact, Buell, Charles Champion Gilbert, Alexander McCook, and Thomas Crittenden were all approaching Perryville. [74]

The Confederates were not the only ones to misjudge the situation, however. When Bragg learned that his men had not attacked as ordered, he came to Perryville himself to lead the attack. In realigning to an attack posture, the Confederates stirred such a cloud of dust that the approaching Union force believed they were retreating to Harrodsburg. [75] This gave Bragg's men the advantage of surprise when they opened fire on McCook's forces at 2 PM on October 8. [76] While McCook was being pushed back on the left flank, the Union center held strong until the right flank began to collapse. [76]

It was not until late afternoon that Buell learned of McCook's plight, whereupon he sent two brigades from Gilbert's corps to reinforce him. [74] This halted the Confederate advance on McCook north of Perryville. [74] Meanwhile, small Confederate brigades encountered Gilbert's force of 20,000 men to the west and Crittenden's force, also 20,000 strong, to the south. [77] Only then did Bragg realize that he was facing Buell's main force, and that he was vastly outnumbered. As night approached and halted the battle, Bragg conferred with his officers and decided to retreat to Harrodsburg to meet Smith. [74] From Harrodsburg, the Confederates exited Kentucky through Cumberland Gap. [74] For the remainder of the war, there would be no concerted efforts by the Confederacy to hold Kentucky. [77]

On December 17, 1862, under the terms of General Order No. 11, thirty Jewish families, longtime residents all, were forced from their homes. Cesar Kaskel, a prominent local Jewish businessman, dispatched a telegram to President Lincoln, and met with him, eventually succeeding in getting the order revoked.

His inability to engage Bragg and Smith on their retreat from Kentucky led to Buell being replaced by General William Rosecrans. [79] Rosecrans encamped at Nashville during the fall and early winter of 1862. Believing that Rosecrans would begin a campaign as soon as sufficient supplies were accumulated, Bragg dispatched John Hunt Morgan back into Kentucky in December 1862 to cut the supply line afforded Rosecrans by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. [80] Morgan's raid was part of a plan to disrupt Union supply lines. While Morgan was moving into Kentucky, Nathan Bedford Forrest was mounting a raid through West Tennessee into the Kentucky Purchase while Earl Van Dorn raided into southern West Tennessee.

The Christmas Raid Edit

Morgan's men crossed into Kentucky on December 22 and captured a Union supply wagon bound for Glasgow. [81] On Christmas Day, Morgan's men rode through Glasgow, bound for Bacon Creek Station and the L&N bridge span. After quelling the stiff Union resistance, Morgan's men destroyed the bridge and several miles of railroad track. [81] Whatever else might happen, they had succeeded in disrupting Rosecrans' supply line. [81]

From Bacon Creek, Morgan rode to Elizabethtown, arriving on December 27. [81] The Union commander, Colonel H. S. Smith, demanded Morgan's surrender, but Morgan turned the tables, surrounded Smith, and, after a short skirmish, accepted his surrender. [82] Again, Morgan destroyed the L&N infrastructure in the area, then began planning an escape back to Tennessee. [83]

Colonel John M. Harlan's artillery shelled Morgan's force as it crossed the Rolling Fork River on December 29, seriously wounding First Brigade commander Basil W. Duke. [83] Duke was taken to Bardstown for medical treatment, however, and recovered in time to rejoin the Confederate retreat the next day. [83]

Freezing rain plagued Morgan's men as they encamped at Springfield on the night of December 30. [83] Worse yet, scouts reported a massive Union force concentrated nine miles away at Lebanon. [83] With Frank Wolford's men moving on his position, Morgan made the difficult decision to move out just after midnight in ever-worsening weather. [83] He ordered a few companies to create a diversion, feigning an attack on Lebanon and burning fence rails to give the appearance of campfires, while the main body of his force continued to Campbellsville. [83] The plan worked, and following a march that many described as their most miserable night of the war, Morgan's men arrived safely in Campbellsville on New Year's Eve and captured some welcome supplies. [84] The following day, they proceeded through Columbia, and returned to Tennessee on January 3. [85]

Morgan crosses the Ohio Edit

Following the Christmas Raid, there were only minor incursions into Kentucky by various units under Roy Cluke, John Pegram, Humphrey Marshall, among others. [86] Frustrated Union commanders could only react to these unpredictable raids. [87] Morgan would soon do them a favor, however, by raising the visibility of his next raid. [87]

It was widely reported that since his December 1862 marriage, Morgan had lost some of his bravado. [88] Morgan, eager to dispel such rumors and weary of guarding Bragg's left flank, [87] proposed a raid through Kentucky and across the Ohio River. [89] Bragg, fearing an attack from Rosecrans, welcomed the idea of a distraction that would take the pressure off his Army of Tennessee. [90] Morgan gathered his men to an area between Liberty and Alexandria, Tennessee. [91] On June 10, he addressed his unit, telling them that Bragg had sanctioned a raid to Louisville, and if conditions permitted, across the Ohio River into Indiana and possibly Ohio. [91] He confided Bragg's true orders– to halt at the Ohio River– only to trusted confidant Basil Duke. [92]

The raid was delayed by orders to intercept a Union raiding party moving on Knoxville, Tennessee, but after three miserable weeks of floundering through muddy conditions, Morgan's men still had not located the enemy. [93] They finally began entering Kentucky on July 2, 1863. [93] Two days later, Morgan engaged Colonel Orlando Moore's forces at Tebbs Bend, where a bridge crossed the Green River [94] near Campbellsville. [95] As was his custom, Morgan demanded an unconditional surrender, but Moore, noting that this was Independence Day, replied "It is a bad day for surrender, and I would rather not." [94] Moore's forces won the day, and Morgan, having suffered 71 casualties, decided to bypass the bridge. [94]

Morgan again encountered resistance at Lebanon where, despite the Confederate victory, his nineteen-year-old brother Tom was killed. [96] From Lebanon, Morgan's men made haste through Springfield toward Bardstown, where they learned that Union soldiers were less than a day behind, and that Louisville was already bracing for another attack. [96] Morgan had the advantage of surprise, however, having selected Brandenburg as his target instead. [96] He sent an advance detachment to make preparations for crossing the Ohio, and on July 7, they captured two steamboats, the John B. McCombs y el Alice Dean. [97] By midnight, all of Morgan's men were on Indiana soil. [96]

Over the next few weeks, Morgan rode along the course of the Ohio River, raiding Indiana and Ohio. On July 19, Federal forces captured Duke and 700 of Morgan's men, but Morgan escaped with 1,100 others. [97] Union pursuit was heavy, and Morgan lost exhausted men daily, his command dwindling to 363 men by the time he surrendered on July 26, 1863. [98]

Morgan was taken to a penitentiary in Columbus, Ohio, but escaped with several of his officers in November 1863. [99] Despite the threat of a court martial from Bragg for disobeying orders, the Confederacy so desperately needed leaders that Morgan was restored to his command position. [99]

Following Morgan's capture in the summer of 1863, there were no major engagements fought in Kentucky until spring of 1864. [100] Portions of three infantry regiments from Bragg's army had requested to reorganize as a mounted infantry under Abraham Buford, but the Confederacy had no horses to supply them. [101] In response, Nathan Bedford Forrest, who had been operating in Mississippi, began to organize a raid on western Tennessee and Kentucky. Besides obtaining mounts for the mounted-infantry-to-be, Forrest intended to disrupt Union supply lines, obtain general provisions for Confederate forces, and discourage enlistment of blacks in Kentucky into the Union army. [102]

On March 25, 1864, Forrest commenced his attack. [102] He met Colonel Stephen G. Hicks at Fort Anderson and demanded an unconditional surrender. [102] Knowing that Forrest's main objectives were to obtain supplies and horses, Hicks declined. [103] For the most part, Hicks was right in his assumption that Forrest would not assault the fort, but Confederate colonel Albert P. Thompson, a native of the area, did briefly attempt to capture it before being killed with 24 men from his unit. [103] Forrest held the city for ten hours, destroying the Union headquarters, as well as the buildings housing the quartermaster and commissary. [102] Forrest also captured a total of 200 horses and mules before withdrawing to Mayfield. [102] Following the raid, Forrest granted furlough to the Kentuckians under his command so they could secure better clothing and mounts. [102] As agreed, every man reported back to Trenton, Tennessee on April 4. [103]

Unionist newspapers bragged after the raid that Union forces had hidden the best horses in the area and that Forrest had only captured horses stolen from private citizens. [103] Furious, Forrest ordered Buford back into Kentucky. [103] Buford's men arrived on April 14, forced Hicks back into the fort, and captured an additional 140 horses in the foundry, exactly where the newspaper reports had placed them. [103] They then rejoined Forrest in Tennessee. [103] The raid was not only successful in terms of gaining additional mounts, but provided a diversion for Forrest's attack on Fort Pillow, Tennessee. [102]

After U.S. Congress passed the Confiscation Acts and Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves from Confederate states were able to join the Union Army. Although, Kentucky slaves were not freed, many abandoned their slave master and fled. Fugitive slaves came to Louisville and Camp Nelson and were enlisted in the U. S. Colored Infantry. [3] [104] Approximately, 24,000 Black Kentuckians, free and enslaved, served as Union soldiers. [4] [3]

In response to the growing problem of guerrilla campaigns throughout 1863 and 1864, in June 1864, Maj. Gen. Stephen G. Burbridge was given command over the commonwealth of Kentucky. This began an extended period of military control that would last through early 1865, beginning with martial law authorized by Lincoln. To pacify Kentucky, Burbridge rigorously suppressed disloyalty and used economic pressure as coercion. His guerrilla policy, which included public execution of four guerrillas for the death of each unarmed Union citizen, caused the most controversy. After a falling out with Governor Thomas E. Bramlette, Burbridge was dismissed in February 1865. Confederates remembered him as the "Butcher of Kentucky". [105]


Return From Kentucky

Passing through here from Cumberland Gap following Bragg's unsuccessful invasion of Kentucky, the newly constituted Army of Tennessee here turned west to Knoxville. Scott's Cavalry Brigade led, followed by a procession of refugees, captured livestock and material, and the corps of Polk, Hardee and Kirby Smith, and Wheeler's Calvary Brigade. Kirby Smith resumed command in East Tennessee the army went by rail to Murfreesboro.

Erected by Tennesse Historical Commission. (Número de marcador 1B 54.)

Temas y series. Este marcador histórico se incluye en esta lista de temas: Guerra, Civil de EE. UU. In addition, it is included in the Tennessee Historical Commission series list.

Localización. 36° 15.019′ N, 83° 16.401′ W. Marker is in Morristown, Tennessee, in Hamblen County. Marker is at the intersection of North Davy Crockett Parkway (Tennessee Route 32) and Reeds Chapel Road, on the right when traveling north on North Davy Crockett Parkway. Toque para ver el mapa. Marker is in this post office area: Morristown TN 37814, United States of America. Toque para obtener instrucciones.

Otros marcadores cercanos. Al menos otros 8 marcadores se encuentran a menos de 3 millas de este marcador, medidos en línea recta. Crockett Tavern (approx. 2 miles away) David Crockett A Tennessee Legacy (approx. 2 miles away) John Crockett: Frontier Ranger (approx. 2 miles away) Young David Crockett


Bragg's invasion of Kentucky - History

Written by Thomas L. Breiner

Braxton Bragg devised and initiated a plan to shift the scene of operations in the West by leading a successful turning movement to the east at Chattanooga and from there into Middle Tennessee. This highly successful operation left Bragg with several options, one of which was an advance into Kentucky. Here was a chance to bring Kentucky into the Confederacy. This movement into the Bluegrass State would climax at the little town of Perryville on October 8, 1862. Along the way the Confederates would experience victories at Richmond and Munfordville prior to that fateful day on the fields around Perryville.

The Kentucky campaign began as an idea that was developed by Major General Edmund Kirby Smith, the Confederate commander of the Department of East Tennessee. With a Union army, under the command of Major General Don Carlos Buell, moving towards Chattanooga, Smith had a need for reinforcements and the most obvious source is Bragg's Army of the Mississippi.

Bragg transfers his army of 30,000 infantry over 800 miles using half dozen different railroads going from Tupelo through Meridian, Mobile, Montgomery and Atlanta before reaching his destination. On July 21, Bragg announces his decision to shift his command to Chattanooga. Departing Tupelo on the July 23, the first units arrive in Chattanooga on July 29. Bragg will personally reach the city the next day. Already the seeds of failure for the infant campaign had been sewn. The campaign will begin without a unified command structure. President Davis established E. Kirby Smith as an independent commander. He expects the two commanders to cooperate and provide mutual support for this operation. Smith proposes a campaign similar to the one Bragg planned and volunteers to place his troops under Bragg. Beginning July 31 and continuing into August 1, Bragg and Smith confer on their upcoming operations. As part of the operation Bragg loans Kirby Smith two brigades, Brigadier General Patrick R. Cleburne's and Colonel Preston Smith's. The Army of Kentucky will depart Chattanooga on August 13.

Kirby Smith's Army of Kentucky is made up of four divisions:

As outlined, Smith will advance against the Federals at Cumberland Gap. After disposing of this force, Smith is to reunite with Bragg for the advance into Middle Tennessee, which will cut Buell off from Nashville. Unfortunately, Smith has an obsession with Kentucky which will end his agreement to mutually support and cooperate with Bragg. Smith plans to deal with Union Major General George Morgan at Cumberland Gap by striking deep into Kentucky. If he destroys the bridge over the Kentucky River near Lexington, Morgan will be forced to evacuate Cumberland Gap.

Once E. Kirby Smith advances into Kentucky, Bragg is left to reassess his own plan. Without the combined forces, Bragg does not feel he is strong enough to oppose Buell directly. Therefore, instead of trying to recapture Nashville, he decides to proceed into Kentucky and unite with Smith in the heart of the Bluegrass.

Major General Don Carlos Buell, with his Army of the Ohio departs Corinth, Mississippi on June 12 moving towards Chattanooga. In order to maintain a supply line, he must repair the Memphis and Charlestown Railroad from Corinth to Decatur as he moves. This delays his advance considerably. He is constantly fighting off Confederate cavalry to maintain the operation of the railroad. With Bragg's flank movement to Chattanooga, Buell needs to change his plans. By June 30 Buell has managed to reach Huntsville, Alabama, and Stevenson, Alabama by early July. The capture of Chattanooga is no longer feasible. Therefore, on September 5, Buell orders all his forces to concentrate at Murfreesboro, Tennessee. This decision by Buell creates a dispute with Major General George H. Thomas. Being closer to the scene, Thomas recommends McMinnville as a better point of concentration. Relations between Buell and Thomas begin to deteriorate. Buell shifts his plan to attack the Confederate army as it departs the Sequatchie Valley. However, after reconsidering his plan again, Buell orders the army to fall back to Nashville to defend the city. With the Union army out of his path, Bragg is able to march across the Cumberland River into Kentucky. Realizing that the both Bragg and Kirby Smith are now in Kentucky, Buell leaves Nashville on September 7 to catch Bragg's army. The race to Louisville is on.

Smith's 12,000-man Army of Kentucky passes through the Cumberland Mountains on August 16 and arrives in Barboursville, Kentucky four days later. Brigadier General Carter Stevenson's division is left to watch the Federals at Cumberland Gap. After the difficult advance from Tennessee, Smith is more convinced than ever that he must to move on to the Lexington area as quickly as possible, if he is to supply his army. Smith reports, "The country around here having been almost completely drained of all kinds of supplies, and the roads between here and East Tennessee being much worse than I had supposed, I find I have but two courses left to me -- either to fall back for supplies to East Tennessee or to advance toward Lexington." Smith decides to go to Lexington. Bragg will agree to this movement on August 24.

Smith's cavalry of 650 men, under Colonel Scott, skirmishes with Union forces at Big Hill on August 24. Union soldiers from the 7th Kentucky Cavalry and the 3rd Tennessee Battalion under the command of Colonel Metcalf flee the field with the first cannon shot. After completing the 18-mile transit of Big Hill, Kirby Smith is extremely thankful that the Union troops were not defending Big Hill with anything more than a few skirmishers.

On August 30, Smith's Army of Kentucky is confronted by the Union Army of Kentucky of Major General William "Bull' Nelson, a six foot five inch, 300-pound former Naval officer. In the ensuing battle, Smith is able to completely decimate Nelson's green soldiers, routing the Union forces from three successive defensive positions. The Union Army of Kentucky consists of two brigades: the 1st Brigade commanded by Brigadier General Mahlon D. Manson and the 2nd Brigade under Brigadier General Charles Cruft. Of the 6,500 Union soldiers engaged in the battle, mostly new recruits from Indiana, nearly 4,300 are captured. The way to Lexington is open.

Union Major General Horatio G. Wright's instructions for Bull Nelson were to defend the line of the Kentucky River, but Nelson failed to pass these orders on the Brigadier General Manson in time. However, Manson is just as eager to confront Smith, as Smith is to fight Manson. In order to meet the Confederates Manson, against orders from Nelson, rushes his forces 5 miles south of Richmond to the vicinity of the Mount Zion Church. The Confederates mount three separate charges, and General Manson is captured and General Nelson, who finally reaches the scene at Richmond in the afternoon, is wounded.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Richmond, Major General Wright promotes two captains to command what is left of Nelson's Army of Kentucky. The first is a quartermaster - Captain Charles Champion Gilbert. He is promoted to rank of major general, pending the approval of the President and Congress, and given command during Nelson's absence. The other is an artillery officer, Captain William R. Terrill. He is made a Brigadier General. The remaining general officers in the army, Brigadier Generals Charles Cruft and James S. Jackson, refused to accept command.

After his stunning victory at Richmond, Smith allows his command one day to rest then easily moves into an undefended Lexington on September 2. He sends a division, under Brigadier General Henry Heth, to threaten Cincinnati and has Scott's cavalry pursue the retreating Union troops towards Louisville. Scott stops 12 miles from the city. Frankfort is occupied on the September 3.

Cincinnati operates in a panic mode. Panic calls are placed to the governors of nearby states for the movement of hastily recruited troops. Major General Wright is in charge of the department, and begins developing a string of defenses on the northern Kentucky hillside to defend Cincinnati. On September 1, he orders Major General Lew Wallace away from his recruiting assignment in Indiana to take charge of the speedily arriving forces. Wallace suspends all business, and orders all male citizens (as well as aliens) to report for duty in building the defenses.

In its lead editorial, the Cincinnati Gazette declares: "TO ARMS! TO ARMS! The time for playing war has passed. The enemy is fast approaching our city. Kentucky has already been invaded and our cities for the first time since the rebellion are seriously threatened. . ." President Lincoln, overseeing events in far-off Washington, receives a telegram on September 3 from concerned citizens from Louisville. "The panic still prevails", they wrote. "Lexington and Frankfort in the hands of the rebels. Unless the State is reinforced with veteran troops Kentucky will be overrun." Whereas Wright has operated understaffed in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Richmond, by September 5, Wright finds himself managing nearly 70,000 untrained, untested troops. He orders Ohio Governor David Tod not to send additional troops to Cincinnati.

Cautiously, the Confederates push a minimal amount of their forces northward. Splitting his forces such that he is unable to accomplish much at all, Kirby Smith has Brigadier General Henry Heth push forward from Georgetown towards Cincinnati with the greater portion of a division of troops. Heth, in his memoirs, claims to have started north on September 6 with approximately 6,000 troops.

The results are anticlimactic. By September 10, Heth is at Crittenden, Kentucky, some 35 miles south of Cincinnati. Two days later, Heth's advanced scouts skirmish with Union soldiers at Florence, Kentucky - and that is all that is accomplished. Smith orders Heth not to attack any further, and the Confederates begin to withdraw south towards Lexington. The scare is over, with little to show for the Confederates.

For the Union forces, there are two important outcomes of the panic. First, a significant and strong defensive position is put in place in Kentucky that all but eliminates any future consideration of an attack on Cincinnati. And second, significant numbers of newly raised troops are now available to support General Buell, if and when he reaches a more northern assembly point.

The interested reader may read more about the "Defense of Cincinnati" at the Web site of the Cincinnati CWRT.

Meanwhile, Bragg waits for his artillery and transportation, which could not be move by the railroad, to reach Chattanooga before departing on August 28. He finally crosses into Kentucky arriving at Glasgow on September 13. He is exactly where he wants to be. Bragg has managed to get between Buell and Smith in a position to cut Buell off from Louisville. Unfortunately, Bragg is confronted with a situation that he does not like. Brigadier General James R. Chalmers, encouraged by Colonel John Scott, has attacked the Union bridge garrison at Munfordville, Kentucky on the September 14, receiving a stinging repulse and 285 casualties. Bragg just cannot leave this affront alone. He moves his entire army to Munfordville two days later. After surrounding the garrison on September 17, Bragg demands the Union commander surrender.

Colonel John T. Wilder, being new to the business, is not sure of how to respond. He is familiar with Confederate Major General Simon Bolivar Buckner. Under a flag of truce, Wilder asks Buckner for some advice. Though the situation is quite unusual, Buckner agrees to show Wilder the Confederate forces and cannons. Realizing the hopelessness of his situation, Wilder agrees to surrender.

Bragg must now decide on the next phase of his campaign. He can confront Buell along the Green River, advance on Louisville and most likely capture the city, wait for Buell to pass and then proceed back to Tennessee and capture Nashville, or move towards Bardstown and unite with E. Kirby Smith. Bragg finally chooses to unite with Smith, opening the way for Buell to race into Louisville. However, due to the delay in capturing Munfordville, Bragg has lost valuable time.

Though wounded at Richmond, Bull Nelson is not out of action for long. He regroups what is left of his command at Louisville and proceeds to gather reinforcements. During the reorganization, Nelson argues with Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis over his poor management and lack of knowledge concerning preparations for the defense of Louisville. Being a native of Indiana, Davis blames Nelson for the loss of so many Indiana soldiers at Richmond. Nelson orders Davis out of Louisville and back to General Wright in Cincinnati. Wright in turn orders Davis to return to Louisville. The insulted Davis detours to Indianapolis to meet with Governor Oliver P. Morton to plead his case. Together they return to Louisville. At the Galt House Hotel on the morning of September 29, Davis in company with Morton confronts Nelson. Again, Nelson insults Davis. Searching among the gathering crowd, Davis finds a friend, Captain Gibson, and borrows a pistol and shoots Nelson. Thirty minutes later, Nelson dies from the gunshot wound. Jefferson C. Davis is never tried for his crime. However, this incident will have dire consequences later, as the newly minted Major General Charles C. Gilbert once again replaces Nelson.

On August 29 a second incident interrupts Buell during the reorganization of the Army of the Ohio in Louisville, when he receives an order from the War Department creating the Department of Tennessee and assigning Major General George H. Thomas to command of the Department and the Army of the Ohio. However, Thomas refuses to accept command pleading that Buell should be retained in command until after the current crisis is over since Buell had already made preparations to move against the enemy.


The Kentucky Campaign Ends

October 11, 1862 – Confederate forces ended their unsuccessful Kentucky campaign, and Federal Major General Don Carlos Buell came under harsh scrutiny for not pursuing the withdrawing enemy aggressively enough.

Following the Battle of Perryville, the two Confederate armies in Kentucky under General Braxton Bragg and Major General Edmund Kirby Smith finally linked near Harrodsburg. Smith urged Bragg, the ranking commander, to make a stand there because it offered good ground on which to meet a Federal attack. But Bragg had already directed his army to continue withdrawing toward Bryantsville.

The next day, Bragg dispatched scouts to find camping grounds around Bryantsville, indicating to the Confederates that they were leaving Kentucky. Bragg had learned of the Confederate defeats at Antietam, Iuka, and Corinth. He had sustained heavy casualties at Perryville, and he was running low on supplies after gaining hardly any Kentucky recruits. Thus, Bragg decided to retreat back to eastern Tennessee.

Bragg and Smith withdrew from Harrodsburg, leaving the town for the Federals to reclaim. Bragg’s army arrived at Bryantsville on the 13th, where he and Smith split up once again. Bragg moved toward Mount Vernon, and Smith moved toward Paint Lick. Smith reported the next day:

“My command from loss of sleep for five nights, is completely exhausted. The straggling has been unusually great. The rear of the column will not reach here before daybreak. I have no hope of saving the whole of my train, as I shall be obliged to double teams in going up Big Hill, and will necessarily be delayed there two or three days.”

Meanwhile, Buell expected Bragg to turn and attack Nashville. He moved his Federal Army of the Ohio to cut Bragg off at Crab Orchard, exclaiming, “Bragg’s army is mine!” But when Buell reached the town on the 15th, he found the Confederates had already passed through on their way to Cumberland Gap.

Buell sent Major General Thomas L. Crittenden’s corps in pursuit, but the Confederates had felled trees across the Wilderness road to block them. The Federals paved a new road and advanced to within a few miles of Mount Vernon by that night.

The next day, Bragg’s Confederates continued slowly withdrawing through the Cumberland Gap bottleneck without substantial Federal opposition. Crittenden’s Federals resumed their pursuit, but they lacked the speed or numbers to catch up to Bragg’s force.

Buell’s superiors pushed for a Federal invasion of eastern Tennessee, both to destroy the Confederates and to secure the predominantly Unionist region. Buell resisted, explaining to General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck, “You are aware that between Crab Orchard and Cumberland Gap the country is almost a desert. The limited supply of forage which the country affords is consumed by the enemy as he passes.” Buell continued:

“The enemy has been driven into the heart of this desert and must go on, for he cannot exist in it. For the same reason we cannot pursue in it with any hope of overtaking him, for while he is moving back on his supplies and as he goes consuming what the country affords we must bring ours forward. There is but one road and that a bad one. The route abounds in difficult defiles, in which a small force can retard the progress of a large one for a considerable time, and in that time the enemy could gain material advantage in a move upon other points.

“For these reasons, which I do not think it necessary to elaborate, I deem it useless and inexpedient to continue the pursuit, but propose to direct the main force under my command rapidly upon Nashville, which General Negley reported to me as already being invested by a considerable force and toward which I have no doubt Bragg will move the main part of his army.

“I shall throw myself on my wagon transportation, which, fortunately, is ample. While I shall proceed with these dispositions, deeming them to be proper for the public interest, it is but meet that I should say that the present time is perhaps as convenient as any for making any changes that may be thought proper in the command, of this army. It has not accomplished all that I had hoped or all that faction might demand.”

After offering to give up his command if his superiors were unhappy, Buell explained that his army “defeated a powerful and thoroughly disciplined army in one battle and has driven it away baffled and dispirited at least, and as much demoralized as an army can be under such discipline as Bragg maintains over all troops that he commands.” Buell did not mention that he failed to destroy an enemy he outnumbered three-to-one at Perryville, and only won because Bragg pulled out afterward.

Halleck sent a stern reply in opposition to Buell’s plan to return to Nashville: “The great object to be attained is to drive the enemy from Kentucky and East Tennessee. If we cannot do it now we need never to hope for it.” In another message on the 19th, Halleck reiterated what he expected of Buell:

“The capture of East Tennessee should be the main object of your campaign. You say it is the heart of the enemy’s resources make it the heart of yours. Your army can live there if the enemy’s can… I am directed by the President to say to you that your army must enter East Tennessee this fall, and that it ought to move there while the roads are passable… He does not understand why we cannot march as the enemy marches, live as he lives, and fight as he fights, unless we admit the inferiority of our troops and of our generals.”

Meanwhile, Bragg continued moving his Confederate Army of Mississippi through Cumberland Gap virtually unmolested, despite having to slow his movement due to the long lines of wagon trains, cattle, and other supplies taken from Kentucky. Bragg’s army was still intact, but his optimistic hopes of claiming Kentucky for the Confederacy were gone.

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Ver el vídeo: Braggs Invasion of Kentucky (Enero 2022).